Positive Non-Violence


Appendix: Canonical quotes in support of positive non-violence (12)

1 Feeling of equality and affection

2 Relinquishing enmity


Te ātao pāsai savvaloe |

- Sūtrakṛtāṅga, 1.12.18.

That is, – The learned in the know of the fundamentals of the faith sees the entire living world as equal to his own self.

Na ya vittāsae paraṁ |

- Uttarādhyayana, 2.20.

That is, – No living being must be tormented.

Ātao bahiyā pāsa |

- Ācārāṅga, 1.3.2.

That is, – See everyone outside as equal to yourself.

Tumaṁ si nāma taṁ ceva jaṁ hantavvaṁ ti maṇṇasi,

Tumaṁ si nāma taṁ ceva jaṁ ajjāvetavvaṁ ti maṇṇasi,

Tumaṁ si nāma taṁ ceva jaṁ paritāvetavvaṁ ti maṇṇasi,

Tumaṁ si nāma taṁ ceva jaṁ parighetavvaṁ ti maṇṇasi,

Evaṁ taṁceva jaṁ uddavetavvaṁ ti maṇṇasi,

Añjū ceyaṁ paḍibuddhajīvī | Tamhā ṇa hantā, ṇa vi ghātae |

Aṇusaṁveyaṇamappāṇeṇaṁ jaṁ jahantavvaṁ ṇābhi-patthae |

- Ācārāṅga,

  • It is you only that you consider worth killing,

  • It is you only that you consider worth subordinating,

  • It is you only that you consider worth tormenting,

  • It is you only that you consider worth enslaving,

  • It is you only that you consider worth making anxious,

  • The learned person is simple and straightforward and lives with enlightenment, therefore he neither kills any creature nor gets any creature killed by others.

  • One has to suffer the consequences of one’s actions, therefore do not desire to kill or hurt any creature.

Comments – In this aphorism an effort has been made to establish a relationship of equality, on the emotional plane, with other creatures. The Lord urges us to put ourselves in the position of the other creatures and then to decide as to how we would like to be treated ourselves and to treat them accordingly.

Virate gāmadhammehiṁ, je kei jagati jagā

Tesiṁ attuvamāyāe, dhāmaṁ kuvvaṁ parivvae |

- Sūtrakṛtāṅga, 1.11.33.

That is, – The monk must rise above the demands of his sense organs and treat all the living beings as his own self and ought not to torment them. He must endeavour to protect them and proceed on the path of his monastic duties.

Āyatule payāsu |

- Sūtrakṛtāṅga, 1.10.3.

That is, – Consider other living beings as equal to your own self.

ḍahare ya pāṇe vuḍḍhe ya pāṇe, te ātato pāsati savvaloe |

- Sūtrakṛtāṅga, 1.12.18.

That is, – In this universe there are small creatures and large creatures. The monk with right vision considers them as his equal.

Se jahā nāmae mama assāyaṁ daṇḍeṇa vā aṭṭhīṇa vā muṭṭhīṇa vā, lelūṇa vā kavāleṇa vā, āuḍijjamāṇassa vā, hammamāṇassa vā tajjijjamāṇassa vā, uddavijjamāṇassa vā jāva lomukkhaṇaṇamātamavi hiṁsākaraṁ dukkhaṁ bhayaṁ paḍisaṁvedemi, iccevaṁ jāṇa savve pāṇā jāva sattā daṇḍeṇa vā java kavāleṇa vā āuḍijjamāṇā vā, hammamāṇā vā tajjijjamāṇā vā, taḍijjamāṇā vāpariyāvijjamāṇā vā, kilāmijjamāṇā vā, uddavijjamāṇā vā jāva lomukkhaṇaṇa-mātamavi hiṁsākaraṁ dukkhaṁ bhayaṁ paḍisaṁvedenti | Evaṁ naccā savve pāṇā jāva savve sattā ṇa hantavvā, ṇa ajjāveyavvā, ṇa parighetavvā, ṇa paritāveyavvā, ṇa uddaveyavvā |

- Sūtrakṛtāṅga, 2.1. 679.

That is – Just as I feel miserable when someone beats me with a rod or a bone or a clod of earth or a stone or a piece of broken earthen pot or a whip or threatens me by pointing a finger at me or chides me or punishes me or admonishes me or torments me or quarrels with me or distresses me or oppresses me or frightens me or even if someone just plucks one hair from my body so do all the living beings, all the creatures all the living existence feel pained and miserable when they are beaten with a rod or a bone or a clod of earth or a stone or a piece of broken earthen pot or a whip or when they are threatened by pointing a finger at them or chided or punished or admonished or tormented or quarreled with or distressed or oppressed or frightened or even if just one hair from their body is plucked.

Knowing this, one must not kill or hurt or torment any living beings, any creatures or all the living existence. Also, they must neither be subordinated, nor enslaved nor tormented nor distressed.

Comments – Others’ pain can be felt only on the basis of pain suffered by the self under different circumstances. This quotation from the Sūtrakṛtāṅga vividly depicts, by comparing it with the pain suffered by us under similar circumstances, the pain that the other creatures may suffer when subjected to violence.



Bhūehiṁ na virujjhejjā |

- Sūtrakṛtāṅga, 1.15.4.

That is – Do not increase conflict and enmity with any living being.

When someone kills one moving creature, he also kills other associated creatures.

Verāṇubaddhā narayaṁ uventi |

Uttarādhyayana, 4.2.

That is – Those who remain tied up with enmity, definitely go to hell.

Comments – Violence gives rise to animosity and repeating it results in increase in the existing enmity. Enmity results in rise in passions like anger, etc., and it is no wonder if such passionate beings go to hell.

Sayaṁ tivāyae pāṇe, aduvā aṇṇehiṁ ghāyae |

Haṇantaṁ vā’ṇujāṇāi, veraṁ vaḍḍhai appaṇo |

- Sūtrakṛtāṅga,

That is – Anyone who kills the living beings or gets them killed by others or even approves of others killing them increases animosity for oneself.

Ruhirakayassa vatthassa ruhireṇaṁ ceva pakkhālijjamāṇassa ṇatthi sohī |

- Jñātādharmakathāṅga, 1.5.

Washing it with blood cannot clean a blood stained cloth. That is, violence is no remedy for overcoming violence.

Pabhū dose nirākiccā, ṇa virujjhejja keṇai |

Maṇasā vayasā ceva, kāyavvā ceva antaso |

- Sūtrakṛtāṅga, 1.11.12.

That is – The sense-conquerred aspirant must overcome his flaws and must not harbour any animosity towards any living being physically, mentally or verbally.

Hiṁsappasūtāiṁ duhāiṁ mantā, verāṇubandhīṇi mahavvayāṇi |

- Sūtrakṛtāṅga, 1.12.18.

That is – The misery borne out of violence causes frightening animosities. Knowing this, one must give up violence.

Verāiṁ kuvvato verī, tato verehiṁ rujjatī |

Pāvovagā ya ārambhā, dukkhaphāsā ya antato |

- Sūtrakṛtāṅga, 1.8.7.

That is – On initiating enmity, one gets to be attached with that animosity, which sets up a tradition of enmity. In the end one has to suffer great pain and misery because of this animosity.

Bhūtehiṁ na virujjhejjā, esa dhamme vusīmao |

Vusīmaṁ jagaṁ pariṇṇāya, assiṁ jīvitabhāvaṇā |

- Sūtrakṛtāṅga, 1.12.18.

That is – Do not have enmity towards the living beings, this is the teaching of the Tīrthaṅkaras or the well-restrained sages. Therefore, the well-restrained monks know the true nature of this world and adopt the faith, preached by the fully detached Lords, in their lives.

Continued …

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