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 Positive Non-Violence

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Appendix: Canonical quotes in support of positive non-violence (10)

1 Merit and spiritual purity

2 Dharma is in mildness

3 Dharma is in simplicity

4 Non-violence and its importance

MERIT AND SPIRITUAL PURITY

Dharmaḥ sadvedyaśubhāyurnāmagotralakṣaṇaṁ puṇyaṁ, uttamakṣamādisvarūpo vā, tatsādhyaḥ kartṛśubha-phaladaḥ pudgalapariṇāmo vā, jīvādivastuno yathāvasthita-svabhāvo vā |

- Nyāyaku. 1. p. 3.

That is, – Merit (Puṇya) that results in the fruition of pleasurable feelings, auspicious lifespan, auspicious body, good social status, is dharma. The activities that result in the bonding of such auspicious karmic matter that gives these auspicious results is dharma. It is natural to the living beings and is, therefore, dharma.

Sammatteṇa sudeṇa ya viradīe kasāyaṇiggaha-guṇehiṁ |

Jo pariṇado sa puṇṇo |

- Mūlācāra, 5.37.

That is, – What is imbued with and associated with righteousness, scriptural knowledge, detachment and passion-control is merit.

Punātyātmānaṁ pūyate’neneti vā puṇyaṁ |

  • Tattvārthavārtika, 6.3.4.

Punātyāmānamiti puṇyaṁ pūyate pavitrīkriyate aneneti vā puṇyaṁ |

- Tattvārthavṛti Śruta, 6.3.

That is, – What purifies the soul is said to be Puṇya or merit.

Puṇyaṁ karma śubhaṁ proktaṁ |

- Ādhyātmasāra. 18-60.

That is, – Auspicious activities are meritorious.

Comments – Those who consider puṇya or merit as deplorable must ponder over the abovementioned quotes from the sacred scriptures. Even if we accept that activities of kindness, compassion, charity, etc., result in meritorious karmic bonds, there is no harm because eventually the meritorious acts go to purify the soul.

Pāvaṁ havai asesaṁ puṇṇamasesaṁ ca havai pariṇāmā |

Pariṇāmādo bandho mukkho, Jiṇasāsaṇe diṭṭho |

- Bhāvapāhuḍa, 116.

That is, – It is the volitional disposition that results in merit and it is the volitional disposition that results in sin. That is how the Jaina precepts go.

DHARMA IS IN MILDNESS

Kula-rūpa-jādi buddhisu tava-suda-sīlesu gāravaṁ kiñci |

Jo ṇa vi kuvvadi samaṇo maddavadhammaṁ have tassa |

- Dvādaśānuprekṣā, 72.

That is, – The mildness of a monk lies in not being proud of his high caste, good appearance, good family, sharp and keen intellect, severe penance undertaken, scriptural knowledge gained, and righteousness of conduct.

Jātyādimadāveśādabuimānābhāvo mārdavaṁ |

- Sarvārthasiddhi, 9.6.

That is, – Absence of pride, borne out of arrogance of high caste etc., is mildness.

Nīcairvṛtyanutsekau mārdavalakṣaṇaṁ |

Mṛdubhāvo mṛdu-karma vā mārdavaṁ, mānanigraho mānavighāta-ścetyarthaḥ |

Tatra mānasyemānyaṣṭau sthānāni bhavanti |

Tadyathā – Jātiḥ kulaṁ rūpaṁ aiśvaryaṁ vijñānaṁ śrutaṁ lābhaḥ vīryaṁ iti |

- Tattvārtha Bhāṣya, 9.6.

That is, – Humility and absence of pride is mildness. Mildness comprises mild disposition as well as mild actions and means overcoming and destroying pride. The pride manifests itself in eight ways, such as – pride in the caste, pride in the family, pride in the beauty, pride in the wealth, pride in the specialised knowledge, pride in the scriptural knowledge, pride in the gain and pride in the power.

DHARMA IS IN SIMPLICITY

Yogasyāvakratā ārjavaṁ |

Yogasya kāya-vāṅmanolakṣaṇa-syāvakratā ārjavamityucyate |

- Tattvārthavārtika, 9.6.4.

Vāṅmanaḥkāyayogānāmavakratvaṁ tadārjavaṁ |

  • - Tattvārthasāra, 6-16.

That is, – Absence of crookedness in the activities of the mind, body and speech is called simplicity or straightforwardness.

Ajjavaṁ nāma ujjugattaṇaṁ ti vā akudilattaṇaṁ ti vā |

Evaṁ ca kuṇamāṇassa kammaṇijjarā bhavai, akuṇa-māṇassa ya kammovacayo bhavai |

- Tattvārthasāra, 6-16.

That is, – A straightforward and non-crooked disposition is said to be simplicity, honesty or uprightness. One who adheres to such simplicity sheds the karma and one who does not bonds more karma.

Ujjutābhāvo ajjavaṁ |

- Daśavaikālika Cūrṇi, p. 18.

That is, – A straightforwardness of disposition is said to be simplicity or rectitude.

Parasminnikṛtipare’pi māyāparityāgaḥ ārjavaṁ |

  • Daśavaikālika Niryukti Haribhadrīya vṛtti, 10-349.

That is, – To be non-deceiving even in the face of others’ deceit is said to be rectitude.

Jo cintei ṇa vaṅkaṁ kuṇadi ṇa vaṅkaṁ ṇa jampae vaṅkaṁ |

Ṇa ya govadi ṇiyadosaṁ ajjavadhammo have tassa |

- Kārtikeyānuprekṣā, 396.

That is, – One who does not think crookedly, does not act crookedly, does not speak crookedly and does not hide his own flaws is said to adhere to the dharma called simplicity or honesty.

Mottūṇaṁ kuḍilabhāvaṁ ṇimmala- hidayeṇa caradi jo samaṇo |

Ajjavadhammaṁ taiyo tassa du sambhavadi ṇiyameṇa |

  • Dvādśānuprekṣā, 73.

That is, – The monk, who relinquishes crookedness and acts in a straightforward manner with a clear heart, certainly observes the third monastic dharma of simplicity.

Bhāvaviśuddhiravisaṁvādanaṁ cārjavalakṣaṇaṁ |

Ṛjubhāvaḥ ṛjukarma vārjavaṁ bhāvadoṣavarjanamityarthaḥ |

  • Tattvārtha Bhāṣya, 9-6.

That is, – A purity of disposition and straightforward-ness of speech are the characteristics of simplicity. In other words, straightforward disposition and straightforward action constitute simplicity. Such a disposition is devoid of any flaw.

Cittamanveti vāg yeṣāṁ vācamanveti ca kriyā |

Svaparānugrahaparāḥ santaste viralāḥ kalau |

- Anagāradhrmāmṛta, 6.20.

Such saintly persons, who do well by themselves and by the others, whose speech follows their thoughts and whose actions follow their speech are rare. Meaning, the saintly persons say what they think and do what they say.

NON-VIOLENCE AND ITS IMPORTANCE

Ahiṁsā niuṇā diṭṭhā, savvabhūesu sañjamo |

  • Daśavaikālika, 6.9.

That is, – The full import of non-violence is to act in a restrained manner towards all living beings.

Hiṁsāe paḍivakkho hoi ahiṁsā |

  • Daśavaikālika Niryukti, 45.

That is, – Non-violence is the opposite of violence.

Āyā ceva ahiṁsā, āyā hiṁsati nicchao eso |

Jo hoi appamatto, ahiṁsao hiṁsao iyaro |

  • Oghaniryukti, 754.

That is, – Absolutely speaking the soul itself is violence and it is non-violence, too. A vigilant soul is non-violent and the negligent one is violent.

Asubho jo pariṇāmo sā hiṁsā |

  • Viśeṣāvaśyakabhāṣya, 1768.

That is, – According to the absolute standpoint, the inauspicious disposition of the soul is violence.

Savvāo vi naīo kameṇa, jaha sāyarammi nivaḍanti |

Taha bhagavaī ahiṁsāe, savve dhammā sammilanti |

  • Sambodhasattarī, 6.

That is, – As all rivers merge into the sea, so do all religious streams merge into non-violence.

Ahiṁsaiva saṁsāra-marāvamṛtasaraṇiḥ |

  • Yogaśāstra, 2.50.

That is, – In the desert of the world only non-violence is the spring of nectar.

Ahiṁsaiva jaganmātā’hiṁsaivānandapaddhatiḥ |

Ahiṁsaiva gatiḥ sādhvī, śrīrahiṁsaiva śāśvatī |

  • Jñānārṇava, 8.32.

That is, – Non-violence is the universal mother, non-violence is the only way to pleasure, non-violence is the only giver of good destinies and non-violence is the only eternal wealth.

Pāṇe ya nāivāejjā, se samie tti vuccai tāī |

Tao se pāvayaṁ kammaṁ, nijjāi udagaṁ va thalāo |

  • Uttarādhyayana, 8.9.

That is, – The living beings must not be subjected to violence. The non-violent only are said to be comported. The sin goes out of the comported ones just as the water flows away from the land.

Aprādurbhāvaḥ khalu rāgādināṁ bhavatyahiṁseti |

  • Puruṣṛrthasiddhyupāya, 44.

That is, – Non-violence is nothing but the nonexistence of the volition of attachment.

Comments – It says that attachment is the basic cause of violence. Therefore, only the detached one can be fully non-violent. This is a very fine distinction of non-violence and cautions against even giving way to attached disposition and to curb such tendencies in the very beginning only.

Ahiṁsā nāma pāṇātivāyaviratī |

  • Daśavaikālika Cūrṇi, p. 15.

That is, – To abstain from depriving the vitalities of the living beings is non-violence.

Śrūyate sarvaśāstreṣu sarveṣu samayeṣu ca |

Ahiṁsālakṣaṇo dharmastadvipakaṣaśca pātakaṁ |

  • Jñānārṇava, 8.31.

That is, – According to all precepts and all scriptures, it is well known that dharma is characterised by non-violence and its opposite (violence) is sin.

Ahiṁsā bhūtānāṁ viditaṁ brahma paramaṁ |

  • Svayambhūstotra (Samantabhadra), 21.4.

That is, – Non-violence towards the living beings has been said to be the Supreme Being.

Ahiṁsaiṣā matā mukhyā, svargamokṣaprasādhanī |

Etatsaṁrakṣaṇārthaṁ ca, nyāyyaṁ satyādipālanaṁ |

  • Haribhadrīya Aṣṭakaprakaraṇa.

That is, – Non-violence, which is the giver of heaven and liberation, is the main thing. For being non-violent one must adhere to truth, etc.,.

Comments – Here, the vow of non-violence has been said to be the main vow amongst five vows of non-violence, truth, non-stealing, celibacy and non-possessiveness. All these vows are for upholding and protecting the vow of non-violence and they all merge into it.

Continued …

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