Appendix: Canonical quotes in support of positive non-violence (9)
Nissaṅkiya-nikkaṅkhiya-nivvitigicchā amūḍhadiṭṭhī ya |
Uvavūha-thirikaraṇe, vacchalla-pabhāvaṇe aṭṭha |
- Uttarādhyayayna sūtra, 28.11.
That is – There are eight parts of right vision – 1. Dobtlessness (Niḥśṅkā), 2. Desirelessness (Niṣkāṅkśā), 3. Disgustlessness (Nirvicikitsā), 4. Delusionlessness (Amūḍhadṛśṭi), 5. Safeguarding the faith (Upagūhan), 6. Stabilisation of the wavering (Sthirikaraṇa), 7. Affection (Vātsalya), and 8. Promoting the faith (Prabhāvanā).
Jo kuṇadi vacchalattaṁ tiṇhe sādhūṇa mokkhamaggammi |
So vacchalabhāvajudo sammādiṭṭhī muṇeyavvo |
- Samayaprābhṛta, 253.
That is, – One who is affectionate towards the three means of liberation that is right vision, right knowledge and right conduct, he must be said to be a right visioned soul endowed with the quality of affection.
Dharmasyeṣu mātari pitari bhrātari cānurāgo vātsalyaṁ ratnatrayādaro vātmanaḥ |
- Bhagavatī Ārādhanā Vijayodayā Tīkā, 45.
That is, – Affection for the parents and brethren that are steeped in the right faith is known as vātsalya.
Jinapraṇītadharmāmṛte nityānurāgatā vātsalyaṁ |
- Tattvārthavārtika, 6.24.1.
That is, – To always have affection for the faith propounded by the Lords Jina is vātsalya.
Jinapraṇīte dharmāmṛte nityānurāgatāthavā yathā gaurvatse snihyati tathā cāturvarṇyaṁ saṅghe’kṛtrima-snehakaraṇaṁ vātsalyaṁ |
- Cāritrasāra, p. 3.
That is, – An everlasting affection towards the right faith propounded by the Lords Jina and also as natural affection towards the four-fold religious order as the cow has for its calf is said to be vātsalya.
Karmāraṇyaṁ chettukāmairakāmairdharmādhārair-vyāpṛtiḥ prāṇivarga |
Bhaiśajādyaiḥ prāsukairvaddhyate vā tadvātsalyaṁ kathyate tathyabodhaiḥ |
- Amitagati Śrāvakācāra, 2.80.
That is, – The inclination to give things like flawless medicine, etc., to all of those that desire to cut down the karma-forest is said to be universal affection.
Dhenuḥ svavatsa iva rāgarasādabhīkśaṇaṁ dṛśṭiṁ kṣipenna manasāpi sahet kṣatiṁ ca | Dharme sadharmasu sudhīḥ kuśalāya baddhapremānubandhamaya viṣṇuvadutsahet |
- Anagāra Dharmāmṛta, 2.107.
That is, – As a cow keeps looking at the calf and does not even think of harming it, similarly a wise person must be imbued with a feeling of love and affection for the members of the religious order and look after them like Viṣṇu.
Kiṁ? Sadharmavipadu-cchedaḥ svayūthyānāmāpado nirasanaṁ |
- Anagāra Dharmāmṛta, Svo. Tī., 2.109.
That is, – Affection is being talked about. What is affection? To destroy the troubles of the coreligionists and to dispel the dangers of the religious order is affection.
Rogārditaśramārtānām sādhūnāṁ gṛhiṇāmapi |
Yathāyogopacārastadvātsalyaṁ dharmakāmyayā |
- Bhāvasaṅgraha, 416.
That is, – To properly treat the ascetics and the householders that are harassed by diseases and are tired from bodily labours is affection.
Vātsalyaṁ tadguṇotkarṣahetave sodhataṁ manaḥ |
- Lāṭīsaṁhitā, 3.113; Pañcādhyāyī, 2470.
That is, – The mind that is ever ready to promote the qualities of the religious order is said to be affection.
Comments – Vātsalya has been given a place among the eight parts of right vision. Literally, the natural feeling of liking and protecting the near and dear ones like father, mother, brother, sister, children, etc., is said to be affection. Thus, affection can be misinterpreted as attachment. However, the affection as a part of right vision is a kind of detached feeling. If it is tarnished by attachment then it cannot remain a part of right vision. The examples of motherly affection have been cited in order to explain the intensity of the feelings, albeit detached, for the faith and the faithful. Tīrthaṅkaras are said to be universally affectionate. Their affection is for every creature of the universe. There was a time when the faith and the faithful members of the order needed protection and promotion for reasons of persecution by the other religionists and it was at such times that the masters called for affection for the coreligionists but truly speaking its meaning cannot be restricted to such narrow limits. Actually detached affection can be and should be for everyone even if he happens to be a member of the persecuting group. One can even think well of him in a detached and selfless way. The affection of the Tīrthaṅkaras was boundless and their affection was, in fact, extended in ample measure to even those who subjected them to various hardships and afflictions.
‘Esā Bhagavtī ahiṁsā jā sā aparimiya-nāṇadaṁsaṇadharehiṁ sīlaguṇa-viṇaya-tava-sañjama-nāyakehiṁ Titthaṅkarehiṁ savvajagavacchalehiṁ tiloga-mahiehiṁ Jiṇacandehiṁ suṭṭhu diṭṭhā |’
That is, – The Tīrthaṅkara-Jinas that are endowed with unbounded knowledge and vision, that are leaders in the matters of righteousness, humility, penance, and restraint, that have affection for all the living beings of the world and that are venerated by all, know well about this goddess called non-violence.
Comments – There is a special meaning in calling the Lords Tīrthaṅkaras as having affection for all the creatures of the universe. This special quality in them points towards their unbounded feeling of kindness and compassion for all.
Cāduvaṇṇe saṅghe cadugadisaṁsāranittharaṇamūḍhe |
Vacchallaṁ kādavvaṁ vacche gāvī jahā giddhī |
- Mūlācāra, 5.66.
That is – One must have as much affection for the four fold religious order (consisting of monks, nuns, lay male followers and lay female followers), which aids the liberation of an individual aspirant practitioner, as a cow has for its calf.
Anavaratamahiṁsāyāṁ śivasukha- lakṣmīnibandhane dharma |
Sarveṣvapi ca sadharmiṣu paramaṁ vātsalyamālambyaṁ |
- Puruṣārthasiddhyupāya, 29.
That is, – One must have affection for goddess non-violence, dharma that gives the eternal pleasure of liberation and the coreligionists.
Vātsalyaṁ ca kāyika-vācika-mānasikānuṣṭhānaiḥ
sarvaprayatnenopakaraṇauṣadhāhārāvakāśa-śāstrādidānaiḥ saṅghe kartavyamiti |
- Mūlācāra, Vṛ. 5.66.
That is, – One must always be well disposed towards the religious order and display his affection for it by giving monastic equipages, medicine for the sick, food, shelter, and scriptures for studying (to the monks and nuns).
Vātsalyaṁ samānadhārmikasyāhārādibhiḥ pratyupakara-ṇaṁ |
Uktaṁ ca – ‘Sāhammi ya vacchallaṁ āhārāīsu hoi savvattha |
Āesagurugilāṇe tavassibālāissa visesā |
- Vyavahārabhāṣya Malaya Vṛ, 65, p. 27.
That is, – To support the coreligionists by giving food etc., is affection. As has been said, “One who cares for the coreligionists and especially for the mendicants, spiritual masters, the sick, the austere and the young members of the order, etc., is said to be affectionate.”