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 Positive Non-Violence

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Appendix: Canonical quotes in support of positive non-violence (6)

1 Charity by Tīrthaṅkaras

2 Friendly feelings

3 Friendship

4 Deceit : hindrance to friendship

5 Result of friendship

CHERITY BY TĪRTHAṄKARAS

Dharmāṅgatvaṁ sphuṭikartuṁ, dānasya Bhagavānapi |

Ataeva vrataṁ gṛhṇan, dadau saṁvatsaraṁ vasu |

- Dvātriṁśat Dvātriṁśikā, 1.9.

That is, – In order to make it clear that charity is a part of dharma, the Lord himself gave a yearlong charity just before taking the vows.

Dāṇaṁ aṇukampāe dīṇāṇāhāṇa santio ṇeyaṁ |

Titthaṅkaraṇā teṇaṁ, sāhūṇa yā pattabuddhīe |

- Pañcāśakaprakaraṇa, 9.6.

That is, – Taking a cue from the charity given by the Tīrthaṅkaras, one must give as far as possible and considering the eligibility one must give devotedly.

FRIENDLY FEELINGS

Jīvantu jantavaḥ sarvekleśavyasanavarjitāḥ |

Prāpnuvantu sukhaṁ tyaktvā vairaṁ pāpaṁ parābhavaṁ |

- Jñānārṇava, 27.7.

That is, – May all living beings live and enjoy freedom from sorrow and affliction; may they be free from sin, enmity and defeat and enjoy the pleasures of life.

Maitrīpramodakāruṇyamādhyasthāni satvaguṇā-dhikakliśyamānāvinayeṣu |

- Tattvārthasūtra, 7.2.

That is, – All living beings must possess the volitional disposition of friendliness for all the other living beings, joy for the virtuous and the sagacious, kindness for the miserable, and neutrality in adversity.

Satveṣu maitrī, guṇiṣu pramodaṁ, kliṣṭeṣu jīveṣu kṛpāparatvaṁ | Mādhyasthabhāvaṁ viprītavṛttau, sadā mamātmā vidadhātu deva |

- Amitagati.

That is, – Lord! Grant me the boon that I may have a feeling of friendliness for all living beings, joy for the virtuous and the sagacious, kindness for the miserable, and neutrality in adversity.

Mittiṁ bhūesu kappae | – Uttarādhyayana sūtra, 6.2.

That is, – Be friendly towards the living beings

Khāmemi savve jīva, savve jīva khamantu me | Mittī me savvabhūesu, veraṁ majjhaṁ na keṇaī |

- Āvaśyaka sūtra.

That is, – I forgive all living beings, all living beings may also forgive me; I am friendly towards all living beings and I have enmity towards none.

Comments – This verse confirms the ‘friendship for all’ concept of positive non-violence. If friendship were to mean only the absence of enmity, this sense would have been conveyed only by the phrase ‘veraṁ majjhaṁ na keṇaī’, but a separate mention of friendship indicates a distinct emphasis on its emotional and practical aspects. Emotional friendship can be there with all the creatures of the world while practical friendship is possible and can be expressed only with those with whom we come in contact. In his monumental work,‘Nītiśataka’, Bhartṛhari has mentioned the characteristics of a good friend in the following verse –

Pāpānnivārayati yojayate hitāya, guhyaṁ nigūhati guṇān prakṭīkaroti | Āpadagataṁ cava na jahāti dadāti kāle, sanmitralakṣaṇamidaṁ pravadanti santaḥ |

That is, – According to the noble and learned sages a good friend is one that stops his friend from indulging in sinful activities, that urges him to pursue beneficial pursuits, that keeps his secrets, that tells about his virtues, that does not leave him when he is beset with dangers and that renders help when needed.

These characteristics of a good friend throw light on the positive and practical aspects of non-violence. This meaning assigned to the word friendship in ‘Nītiśataka’ only clarifies the practical side of friendship preached by Bhagvān Mahāvīra.

FRIENDSHIP

Jīvesu hitacintā mettī |

- Bhagavatī Ārādhanā, 1696.

That is, – The emotional state that carries a friendly feeling towards all the living beings is said to be friendship.

Pareṣāṁ duḥkhānutpatyabhilāṣo maitrī |

Svakāya-vāṅmanobhiḥ kṛta-kāritānumataviśeṣaṇaiḥ pareṣāṁ

duḥkhānutpattau abhilāṣaḥ mitrasya bhāvaḥ karma vā maitrī |

- Tattvārthavārtika, 7.11.1.

That is, – To desire that others may never be in trouble is friendship. Not to create trouble for others, not to have such troubles created and not to approve of any trouble being created for others physically, mentally and verbally are the emotional and practical forms of friendship.

Parahitacintā maitrī |

- Ṣoḍaśaka, 4.15.

That is, – To care and constantly think about the others’ benefit is friendship.

Anantakālaṁ catusṛṣu gatiṣu paribhramato ghaṭī-yantravatsarve

prāṇabhūto’pi bahuśaḥ kṛtamahopakārā iti teṣu mitratācintā maitrī |

- Bhagavatī Ārādhanā, Vijayodayā Ṭīkā, 1696.

That is, – Transmigrating and moving about like clockwork in the four-way (hellish, subhuman, human and heavenly) destinies for infinite duration of time, all the living beings have obliged any particular creature many times, therefore, one must think about being friendly with all of them. Such thinking is called friendship.

Kāyena manasā vācā’pare sarvatra dehini |

Aduḥkhajananī vṛttimaitrī maitrīvidāṁ matā |

- Upāsakādhyayana, 335.

That is, – A disposition that does not create any trouble for others either physically, mentally or verbally has been termed as friendship by those that know about it.

Medyati snihyatīti mitraṁ, tasya bhāvaḥ samasta-satvaviṣayaḥ snehapariṇāmo maitrī |

- Yogaśāstra Svo. Viva. 4.117.

That is, – One who has a feeling of affection is a friend. Friendship is nothing but the affectionate feeling for all the creatures.

Mā kārṣīt ko’pi pāpāni mā ca bhūtko’pi duḥkhitaḥ |

Mucyatāṁ jagadapyeṣā matimaitrī nigadyate |

- Yogaśāstra, 4.118.

That is, – The intellect that dwells on the themes like ‘none ought to sin’, ‘none should be miserable’, ‘everyone should liberate’ is said to be a friendly intellect.

Kāyavāṅmanobhiḥ kṛtakāritānumatairnyeṣāṁ kṛcch-rānutpattikāṅkṣā maitrītyuccate |

- Tattvārthavṛtti, 7.11.

That is, – One’s desire that physically, mentally and verbally one should neither create any trouble nor have it created by others and nor should one approve of anyone else creating trouble for others is said to be friendship.

Comments – A friend does not want to see his friends in trouble. Hence, anyone endowed with a friendly feeling for others would not like to see others in trouble ever. Therefore, one who has a feeling of universal friendship would not like to see any creature at all in trouble ever. He would wish to see everyone ever happy. He would not desert anyone in trouble and engages himself in trying to mitigate his trouble. This is, then, the true grain of universal friendly feeling.

Tahiṁ tahiṁ suyakkhāyaṁ, se ya sacce suyāhiye |

Sadā sacceṇa sampaṇṇe, mettiṁ bhūtehiṁ kappate |

- Sūtrakṛtāṅga, 1.15.

That is, – Whatever and wherever the Lords Tīrthaṅkaras have said anything about the living beings, which have been mentioned at various places in the canonical works, is the best and true. Therefore, everyone must adopt that truth and be friendly towards all living beings.

DECEIT: HINDRANCE TO FRIENDSHIP

Māyā mittāṇi nāsei |

- Daśavaikālika, 8.38.

That is, – Deceit destroys-hurts the friends. It drives them away.

Comments – Here, the term friends means the near and dear ones. Deceit drives such people away. Those imbued with a feeling of universal friendship would not be affected by any feelings of the others.

RESULT OF FRIENDSHIP

Mittībhāvamuvagae yāvi jive bhāvavisohiṁ kāuṇa nibbhae bhavai |

- Uttarādhyayana, 29.17.

That is, – By acquiring the friendly feeling one becomes fearless due to his volitional purity.

Continued …

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