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 Positive Non-Violence

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Appendix: Canonical quotes in support of positive non-violence (5)

1 Kindness is a natural attribute

2 The result of kindness

3 Charity

4 Charity is dharma

5 The result of charity: destruction of karma

6 The vow of charity

7 The charitable

KINDNESS IS A NATURAL ATTTRIBUTE

Karuṇāe kāraṇaṁ kammaṁ karuṇe tti na vuttaṁ? Karuṇāe jīvasahāvassa kammajaṇidattavirohādo | Akaruṇāe kāraṇaṁ kammaṁ vattavvaṁ? Ṇa esa doso sañjama-ghādikammāṇaṁ phalabhāveṇa tisse abbhuvagamādo |

- Śaṭkhaṇḍāgama, Dhavalā Tīkā, 5.5.97; Book 13 pp. 362.

Inquiry – Why has this not been said that kindness is prompted by the kindness inducing karma?

Answer – No, such a thing has not been said because kindness or mercy is a natural attribute of the living beings and to say otherwise contradicts this fundamental truth.

Inquiry – Then mercilessness must be induced by karma?

Answer – There is no harm in saying so because mercilessness is induced by restraint destroying karma.

Comments – In the abovementioned question and answer in the Dhavalā ṭīkā, the real form of kindness has been mentioned by saying that it is a natural attribute of the living beings. It must motivate those who claim that it is induced by delusion and attachment to rethink about it.

THE RESULT OF KINDNESS

Moha maya gāravehiṁ ya mukkā je karuṇabhāvasañjuttā |

Te savva duriyakhambhaṁ haṇanti cārittakhaggeṇa |

- Bhāvapāhuḍa, 159.

That is, – The monks that are devoid of delusion and pride and puff and are endowed with a kindly disposition cut down the pillar of sins with the sword of monastic conduct.

Yathā yathā hṛddhi sthairyaṁ karoti karuṇā nṛṇāṁ |

Tathā tathā vivekaśrīḥ parāṁ prītiṁ prakāśate |

- Jñānārṇava, 8.55.

That is, – As the feeling of kindness settles down in the hearts of men, so their virtues of discretion also gain newer heights. Essentially, kindness results in increased discretion.

CHARITY

Anugrahārthaṁ svasyātisargo dānaṁ |

- Tattvārthasūtra, 7.33.

That is, – The giving of one’s material belongings to others in order to help them is charity.

Parānugrahabuddhyā svasyātisarjanaṁ dānaṁ |

  • Tattvārthavārtika (Akalaṅka), 6.12.4;

  • Sarvārthasiddhi (Pūjyapāda), 6.12;

  • Tattvārthaślokavārtika, 6.12.

That is, – The giving of one’s material belongings to others with a thought of helping them is charity.

Sva-paropakāro’nugrahaḥ |

That is, – What is helpful to the self and the other is said to be help.

Ātma-parānugrahārthaṁ svasya dravyajātasyānna-pānādeḥ pātretisargo dānaṁ |

Tattvārthabhāṣya, 7.33.

That is, – The giving of one’s belongings like food, water, etc., with a view to help the self and the others is charity.

Ratnatraydbhyaḥ svavittaparityāgo dānaṁ ratna-trayasādhanaditsā vā |

Dhavalā, Book 13, p. 389.

That is, – The giving of one’s money and things such as the means of practicing the Trigem (right vision, right knowledge and right conduct) to those who are endowed with it is charity.

Ātmanaḥ śreyas’nveṣāṁ ratnatraya samṛddhaye |

Svaparānugrahāyetthaṁ yatsyātaddānamiṣyate |

- Upāsakādhyayana, 768.

That is, – The giving of one’s belongings for enriching the Trigem and with a view to help the self and the others is charity.

Kṛpaṇe’anāthadaridre, vyasanaprāpte ca rogaśokahate |

Yaddīyate kṛpārthādanukampāt tadbhaveddānaṁ |

- Umāsvāti, Abhidhāna Rājendrakośa, p. 360.

That is, – What is given with compassion, to the miserable, the orphans, those that are in difficulty, those that suffer from sickness and are grie stricken, is called charity.

Comments – Charity means giving. Anything given without relinquishing its ownership is not called charity and cannot be categorised as dharma. Charity means relinquishing own ownership and recognising that of the other to whom it is given in charity. Charity helps in reduction of attachment in the giver. Again, it must be thought of as to what is being given in charity. One may not thoughtlessly give stale food to the beggar and poison to the neighbour.

CHARITY IS DHARMA

Dānaṁ sīlaṁ ca tavo bhāvo evaṁ cauviho dhammo |

Savvajiṇehiṁ bhaṇio, tahā duhā suacaritehiṁ |

- Saptatiśatasthānaprakaraṇa, verse 96.

That is, – Dharma is of four types – in the forms of charity, righteousness, penance and right volition. All the Lords Jina have also said it to be of two types – Śruta-dharma (dharma in the form of right scriptural teachings) and Cāritra-dharma (dharma in the form of right conduct).

Gṛhasthānāmāhāradānādikameva paramo dharmaḥ |

- Paramātmaprakāśa Tīkā, 2111.

That is, – For the householders the giving of food etc., is the best dharma.

Asaṁvibhāgo na hu tassa mokkho |

- Daśavaikālika, 9.2.23.

That is, – One who does not share his belongings with others by giving them in charity cannot liberate.

Asaṁvibhāgī aciyate, pāvasamaṇe tti vuccai |

- Uttarādhayayana sūtra, 17.3.

That is, – The monk who does not share what he receives as alms is a sinful monk.

Comments – Here the sharing of what is received has been prescribed not only for the householders but also for the ordained ascetics.

THE RESULT OF CHARITY: DESTRUCTION OF KARMA

Yat teṣu dānaṁ bhakta-pāna-vastra-pātrāśrayāder-dīnānātha-vanīyakādiṣu agāriṣvanagāreṣu ca

jñāna-darśanācaraṇa-sampanneṣu tvekāntakarmanirjarāphalaṁ ca bhavati |

- Tattvārthabhāṣya Siddhasenavṛtti, 6.13.

That is, – By giving food, water, clothes, pots, shelter, etc., to the needy, orphans, mendicants, householders and ordained ascetics is charity and if the recipient is endowed with the virtues of right vision, right knowledge and right conduct then such charity singularly becomes a means of karmic reduction and destruction.

Pātrabhūtānnadānācca śaktyādyāstarpayanti te |

Te bhogabhūmimāsādya prāpnuvanti paraṁ padaṁ |

Dānato sātaprāptiśca svargamokṣaikakāraṇaṁ |

- Padmapurāṇa parva 123, 106 and 108.

That is, – Those people of means who satisfy the deserving by giving them food, etc., get reborn in the land of enjoyment and are liberated eventually. Charity yields pleasure and it is the principal means of attaining heavenly rebirth and even liberation from the mundane life cycle.

THE VOW OF CHARITY

Paramātmanoranugrāhī dharmavṛddhikaratvataḥ |

Svatsyosrjanamicchanti dānaṁ nāma gṛhīvrataṁ |

- Tattvārthasāra, 4.99.

That is, – Being a promoter of dharma, the householder who wishes well by himself and the other gives away his belongings to the others. This is called the householder’s vow of charity.

Saṁvibhāgasīle saṅgahovaggakusale | Se tārisae ārāhae vayamiṇaṁ |

- Praśnavyākaraṇa, 2.3.

That is, – One who shares and who is proficient in accumulating and distributing only can properly observe the vow (of non-stealing).

Sādhunā’pi daśābhedaṁ, prāpyaitadanukampayā |

Dattaṁ jñānādbhagavato, raṅkasyeva suhastinā |

- Dvātriṁśat Dvātriṁśikā, 1.10.

That is, – Under special circumstances even a monk can give compassionate charity. As Ācārya Suhasti gave to the poor and Bhagvān Mahāvīra gave the celestial cloth (gifted to him at the time of his monastic ordination when He took the vows) to a Brahmin.

Comments – According to the Jaina conduct rules for the ascetics, they are unencumbered and they neither take nor keep more than their day-to-day requirements. Therefore, the occasions for their giving something as compassionate charity do not arise. However, under special circumstances even they can give out of compassion. Normally they only give the charity of their sermons that help mitigate many problems and troubles from personal as well as social lives and eventually help in spiritual emancipation and liberation.

THE CHARITABLE

Śraddhānvito bhaktiyutaḥ samartho vijñānavānllobhavivarjitaśca |

Kṣāntyānvitaḥ satvaguṇopapannaḥ tādṛgvidho dānapatiḥ praśastaḥ |

- Varāṅgacarita, 7.30.

That is – That charitable person is the best who is faithful, worshipping, able, learned, greedless, forgiving and sagacious and sage lake.

Navakoṭiviśuddhasya dātā dānasya yaḥ patiḥ |

Bhakti-śraddhā-satvatuśṭi-jñānālaulya-kṣamāguṇaḥ |

- Sāgāradharmāmṛta, 5.47.

That is, – That giver is said to be noble and charitable who is endowed with nine kinds of worships, who is faithful, sagaciously sage, contented, learned, devoid of greed and forgiving.

Anasūyāviṣādādirdātṛviśeṣaḥ |

  • Tattvārthaślokavārtika, 7.39;

  • Sarvārthasiddhi, 7.39.

That is, – That giver is said to be special who is devoid of jealousy, sorrow and gloom.

Continued …

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