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 Positive Non-Violence

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Appendix: Canonical quotes in support of positive non-violence (3)

1 Compassion

2 Compassion as a sign of right vision

COMPASSION

Anukampā duḥkhiteṣvapakṣpātena duḥkhaprahāṇecchā samyaktvaliṅgaṁ |

Pakṣapātena tu karuṇā putrādau vyāghrādīnāmapyastyeveti na tādṛśyāḥ kṛpāyāstattvaṁ |

Sā cānukampā dravyato bhāvataśceti dvidhā |

Dravyataḥ satvāṁ śaktau duḥkha-pratikāreṇa, bhāvataścārdrahṛdayatvena |

Yadāhu – Daṭṭhūṇa pāṇinivahaṁ, bhīme bhavasāgarammi dukkhattaṁ |

Avisesao’ṇukampaṁ, duhāvi sāmatthao kuṇai |

- Dharmasaṅgraha, Adhikāra, 2.

That is, – The desire to mitigate the troubles of all living beings without any discrimination is compassion, which is a characteristic of right vision. The discriminatory kindness towards the offspring etc., is there even amongst the wild beasts like lions etc., also. Therefore, that kind of compassion is not important from the right vision point of view.

Considered from the material and emotional standpoints, that compassion is of two types – When capable, to try to mitigate the troubles of others is compassion from the material standpoint and to have a volitional disposition for mitigating others’ troubles is emotional compassion. As has been said –

“The compassion that is practiced towards the miserable creatures of this world is of two types – 1. Material compassion (Dravyānukampā) and 2. Emotional compassion (Bhāvānukampā).”

Tisidaṁ bubhukkhidaṁ vā duhidaṁ daṭṭhūṇa jo du duhidamaṇo |

Paḍivajjiditaṁ kivayā tassesa hodi anukampā |

- Pañcāstikāya, Kundakundacharya, verse 137.

That is, – Kundakundacharya says that one who is moved to mercy by seeing the travails of the thirsty, the hungry and the miserable and treats them kindly, is said to be compassionate.

Comments – This propounding of concept of compassion by Kundakundācārya reminds the worldly-wise people of their practical form of the faith or the human and humane religion.

Anugrahārdrikṛtacetasaḥ parapīḍātmadhyāmiva kurvato’nukampanamanukampā |

- Sarvārthasiddhi, 6-12 and 6.12.3.

That is, – To be moved to mercy by the misery of others by a person of benevolent heart that feels for others is said to be compassion.

Sarvaprāṇiṣu maitrī anukampā |

- Tattvārtha ślokavārtika, 1.2.12.

That is – A feeling of friendliness towards all living beings is said to be compassion.

Anukampā duḥkhiteṣu kāruṇyaṁ |

- Tattvārthabhāṣya Haribhadrīyavṛtti, 1-12.

That is, – A feeling of merciful kindness towards all miserable living beings is said to be compassion.

Anukampā ghṛṇā kāruṇyaṁ satvānāmupari, yathā sarva eva satvā sukhārthino duḥkhaprahāṇārthinaśca, naiteṣāmalpāpi pīḍā mayā kāryati niścitya cetasā’ rdreṇa pravartate svahitamamivāñchaṁ |

- Tattvārthabhāṣya Siddhasenagaṇi, 1-12.

That is, – One must be compassionate towards all living beings because all living beings desire pleasure and wish their miseries to come to an end. Thinking that he must not be a cause of even the least misery for them and wishing well by himself, the kind hearted and compassionate person is moved by others’ miseries and acts compassionately.

Satve sarvatra cittasya, dayārdratvaṁ dayālayaḥ |

Dharmasya paramaṁ mūlamanukampāṁ pracakṣate |

- Upāsakādhyayana, 230.

That is, – The kindhearted people call compassion in the form of moving of one’s heart to mercy at the miseries of others everywhere and every time.

Anukampā duḥkhitasattvaviṣayā kṛpa |

- Dharmabindu, Mu. Vṛ. 3.7.

That is, – To be merciful and kind towards all miserable living beings is said to be compassion.

Anupaścād duḥkhitasattvakamapanādanantaraṁ yat-kampanaṁ sā anukampā |

- Vṛhatkalpavṛtti, 1320.

That is – A feeling of being moved by merciful kindness towards all miserable living beings being tormented by their miseries is said to be compassion.

Anukampā duḥkhiteṣu apakṣapātena duḥkhaprahāṇecchā |

- Yogaśāstra Svo. Viva. 2.15.

That is, – A feeling of merciful kindness towards all miserable living beings and the desire to mitigate their miseries without any discrimination is said to be compassion.

Ekendriyaprabhṛtīnāṁ sarveṣāmapi dehināṁ |

Bhavābdhau majjatāṁ kleśaṁ paśyato hṛdayārdratā |

Tadduḥkhairduḥkhitatvaṁ ca tatpratikārahetuṣu |

Yathāśakti pravṛttiścetyanukampā’midhīyate |

- Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacarita, 1.3.615-616.

That is, – To be moved by the misery of the living beings drowning in the ocean of worldliness and to try to mitigate their misery to one’s capacity is said to be compassion.

Kliśyamānajanturuddharaṇabuddhiḥ anukampā |

- Bhagavtīārādhanā Mūlā. ¢īkā, 1696.

That is, – A willingness to save the miserable from their misery is said to be compassion.

Anukampā kappa jñeyā sarvasattveṣvanugrahaḥ |

- Lāṭī Saṁ. 3.89, Pañcādhyāyī 2.446.

That is, – A feeling of merciful and kind favour towards all miserable living beings is said to be compassion.

Duḥkhitaṁ janaṁ dṛṣṭvā kāruṇyapariṇāmo’nukampā |

- Cāritraprābhṛta (Kundakunda) ¢ī., 10.

That is, – To get a feeling of merciful kindness on seeing the misery of the miserable living beings is said to be compassion.

Sarveṣu prāṇiṣu cittasya dayārdratvamanukampā |

- Tattvārtha Vṛtti Śru. 1.2; Kārtikeyānuprekṣā ¢ī. 326; Tattvārtha Sukhabodhā Vṛtti 1.2 and 6.12.

That is, – To be mercifully kind towards all miserable living beings is said to be compassion.

Saddṛṣṭayo vāpi kudṛṣṭayo vā, svabhāvato mārdavasamprayuktāḥ |

Yā kurute sarvaśarīravarge, sarvānukampetyamidhīyate sā |

- Bhagavatīārādhanā Vijayodayā ¢īkā, p. 615.

That is, – Those who are naturally soft and if they act compassionately towards all miserable living beings are said to be compassionate irrespective of the fact whether they are right visioned or false visioned.

Comments – To be moved to mercy by seeing or knowing about the misery of the living has been said to be compassion. That compassion is expressed in the form of friendship, mercy, kindness, etc.,. Therefore, the commentators have, at different times, said differently that friendship, kindness, mercy, etc., are different forms of compassion. In compassion the main thing is the melting of the heart by the pain and misery of others.

Sudurlabhaṁ mānuṣajanmaṁ labdhvā, mā kleśapātrāṇi vṛthaiva bhūta |

Dharme śubhe bhūtahite, yatadhvamityevamādyerapi copadeśaiḥ |

- Bhagavatī Ārādhanā Vijayodayā ¢īkā.

That is, – Don’t be subject to unnecessary affliction even after gaining the rare human birth. By heeding to teachings like ‘engage yourselves in the activities of general weal’ etc., you must be compassionate without responding to any favour done in the past or expecting any favour in future.

Prañāśaktyā varākān nirīkṣya, tadduḥkhamātmasthamiva vicintya

svāsthyamupaśamanamānukampā |

- Bhagavatī Ārādhanā Vijayodayā ¢īkā, p. 616.

That is, – By wisely taking note of the miseries of the miserable and the helpless and considering their misery as own, the desire to mitigate their misery is compassion.

COMPASSION AS A SIGN OF RIGHT VISION

Uvasama saṁvego vi a, nivveo taha ya hoi |

Aṇukampā atthikkaṁ ca ee, sammatte lakkhaṇā pañca |

- Pravacanasāroddhāra, dvāra 149, verses 940-955.

That is, – Subsidence of passions, an insatiable desire for spirituality, detachment from the mundane, compassion and a steadfast belief in the right faith are the five indicators of right vision.

Tadevaṁ praśamasaṁveganirvedānukampāstikyābhivayakti-lakṣaṇaṁ

tattvārthaśraddhānaṁ samyagdarśanaṁ |

- Sabhāśyatattvārthādhigamasūtra, 1.2.

That is, – Right vision is characterised by subsidence of passions, an insatiable desire for spirituality, detachment from the mundane, compassion and a steadfast belief in the right faith as well as by an unshakeable belief in the fundamental verities.

Praśamasaṁveganirvedānukampāstikyābhivayakti-lakṣaṇaṁ samyaktvaṁ |

- Dhavalā, 1/1.1.4.

That is – Right vision is characterised by subsidence of passions, an insatiable desire for spirituality, detachment from the mundane, compassion and a steadfast belief in the right faith.

Samyaktvaṁ kīdṛśaṁ bhavati? Pañceti, pañcabhiḥ

śama-saṁveganirvedānukampāstikyārūpairlakṣaṇaiḥ

liṅgair-lakṣitamupalakṣitaṁ bhavati |

- Dharmasaṅgraha, Adhikāra 2.

That is, – What are the characteristics of right vision? Right vision is of five kinds and it is characterised and identified by its five indicators – subsidence of passions, an insatiable desire for spirituality, detachment from the mundane, compassion and a steadfast belief in the right faith.

Saṁvego ci a uvasama nivveo taha ya hoi

aṇukampā atthikkaṁ cia ee sammatte lakkhaṇā pañca |

- Vṛhatkalpavṛtti, U. 1, Prakaraṇa 2.

That is, – An insatiable desire for spirituality, subsidence of passions, detachment from the mundane, compassion and a steadfast belief in the right faith are the five indicators of right vision.

Saṁvegaḥ praśamaḥ sthairyaṁ asaṁmūḍhatvam-asmayaḥ

āstikyamanukampetijñeyā samyaktvabhāvanā |

- Mahāpurāṇa, 29/97.

That is – The seven volitional dispositions that characterise right vision are an insatiable desire for spirituality, subsidence of passions, stability of mind, lack of delusion, pridelessness, compassion and a steadfast belief in the right faith.

Comments – Thus, we can clearly see that compassion is one of the five characteristics (subsidence of passions, an insatiable desire for spirituality, detachment from the mundane, compassion and a steadfast belief in the right faith) of right vision. As right vision is dharma for its being one of the three parts of the path of liberation, compassion is also dharma.

Sammattassa pahāṇo aṇukampā vaṇṇio guṇo jamhā |

Pāraddhiramaṇasīlo sammattavirāhao tamhā |

- Vasunandi Śrāvakācāra, 94.

That is, – Compassion or kindness is one of the major attributes of right vision; therefore those who hunt are contrary to right vision.

Continued …

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