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 Positive Non-Violence

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SAKĀRĀTMAK AHIṀSĀ :

ĀGAM SĀRA

ABBHUṬṬHETAVVAṀ-PADAṀ

Asuyāṇaṁ dhammāṇaṁ sammaṁ suṇaṇattāen abbhuṭṭhetavvaṁ bhavati |

Suttāṇaṁ dhammāṇaṁ ogiṇhaṇayāe uvadhāraṇayāen abbhuṭṭhetavvaṁ bhavati |

Ṅavāṇaṁ kammāṇaṁ sañjameṇamakaraṇatāe abbhuṭṭhe-yavvaṁ bhavati |

Porāṇāṇaṁ kammāṇaṁ tavasā vigiñcaṇatāe visohaṇatāe abbhuṭṭhetavvaṁ bhavati |

Asaṅgihītaparijaṇassa saṅgiṇhaṇatāe abbhuṭṭhetavvaṁ bhavati |

Sehaṁ āyāragoyaraṁ gāhaṇatāe abbhuṭṭhetavvaṁ bhavati |

Gilāṇassa agilāe veyāvaccakaraṇatāe abbhuṭṭhetavvaṁ bhavati |

Sāhammiyāṇamadhikaraṇaṁsi uppaṇṇasi tattha aṇissito-vassito appakkhaggāhī majjhatthabhāvabhūte kaha ṇu sāhammiyā appasaddā appajhañjhā appatumantamā? Uvasāmaṇatāe abbhuṭṭhetavvaṁ bhavati |

 

  • Sthānāṅga Sūtra, Aṣṭaṁ sthāna

 

 

THE READINESS PHRASES

Be ever ready to listen to the teachings of the so far unheard of faith|

Be ever ready to act on the discourses so heard|

Be ever ready to stop the influx of new karma-matter through observing flawless restraint|

Be ever ready to reduce, destroy and separate the bonded karma-matter through detached practice of penance|

Be ever ready to help the helpless and shelter the unsheltered|

Be ever ready to educate the uneducated|

Be ever ready to happily serve the weak, the ill and the diseased|

If, for some reason, there has arisen a difference of opinion, quarrel or fight or strife between the fellow followers of the faith, be ever ready to diffuse it and bring back the state of reconciliation and harmony.

- Sthānāṅga Sūtra, Eighth Chapter

 

 

SERVICE TO THE ILL AND THE MISERABLE IS SERVICE TO GOD

 

THE DIALOGUE BETWEEN BHAGVĀN MAHĀVĪRA AND GAṄADHARA GAUTAMA

 

Kiṁ Bhante! jo gilāṇaṁ paḍiyarai se dhaṇṇe udāhu je tumaṁ daṁsaṇeṇa paḍivajjai?”

Goyama! je gilāṇaṁ paḍiyarai|”

Se keṇaṭṭheṇaṁ Bhante! evaṁ vuccai?”

Goyama! Je gilāṇaṁ paḍiyarai se maṁ daṁsaṇeṇa paḍivajjai| Je maṁ daṁsaṇeṇa paḍivajjai se gilāṇaṁ paḍiyarai tti| Āṇākaraṇa-sāraṁ khu Arahantāṇaṁ daṁsaṇaṁ| Goyama! evaṁ vuccai – “Je gilāṇaṁ paḍiyarai se maṁ paḍivajjai| Je maṁ paḍivajjai se gilāṇaṁ paḍivajjai|”

- Āvaśyakasūtra, Haribhadra (comm.),

Agamodaya Samiti, Surat, 1917, folio 661-62.

 

“Lord! Who is blessed, the one who serves the ill and the miserable or the one who serves you?”

Gautama! The one who serves the ill and the miserable.”

“Lord! Why do you say so?”

Gautama! One, who serves the ill and the miserable, serves me and the one who serves me, serves the ill and the miserable. This is the essence of the Arihanta’s teaching. Therefore, O’ Gautama! I say that the one who serves the ill and the miserable, serves me and the one who serves me serves the ill and the miserable.”


POSITIVE NON-VIOLENCE : THE LIBERATING PATH

Samyagdarśan-jñāna-cāritrāṇi mokṣa-mārgaḥ|

- Tattvārthasūtra Ch. 1, Sū. 1.

The right viewpoint, the right knowledge and right conduct, together, constitute the liberating path.

Ṅāṇaṁ ca daṁsaṇaṁ ceva, carittaṁ ca tavo tahā|

Eyaṁ maggamaṇuppattā, jīvā gacchanti suggaiṁ\

- Uttarādhyayanasūtra, Ch. 28, verse 3.

The path of (Right) knowledge, (right) viewpoint, (right) conduct and penance is the liberating path. Those who tread this path, liberate.

 

The Characteristics of Right Viewpoint -

Tattvārthaśraddhānaṁ samyagdarśanaṁ| Tadevaṁ praśama saṁvega nirvedānukampāstikyābhivyakti lakśaṇaṁ Tattvārthaśraddhānaṁ samyagdarśanaṁ\

- Sabhāśya Tattvārthādhigam sūtra Ch. 1, . 2.

To believe in the fundamental verities is to have the right viewpoint. It is characterised by the expression of lack of excitability, desire for liberation, a feeling of detachment, compassion and theism.

Praśama-saṁvegānukampāstikyābhivyakti lakṣaṇaṁ samyaktvaṁ|

- Vīrasenācārya, Dhavalā Comm to Ṣaṭkhaṅḍāgama, 1/1.1.4.

Lack of excitability, desire for liberation, detachment, compassion and theism are the characteristics of righteousness.

 

Characteristics and Result of Compassion -

Tisidaṁ bubhukkhidaṁ vā duhidaṁ

daṭṭhūṇa jo du duhidamaṇo|

Paḍivajjiditaṁ kivayā

tassesa hodi anukampā\

- Pañcāstikāya, Kundakundacharya, verse 137.

In this verse, Kundakundacharya says that one who is moved by seeing the travails of the thirsty, the hungry and the miserable and treats them kindly, is said to be compassionate.

Anukampākṛpādayetatyekārthāḥ|” – Aupapātika Niryukti.

Compassion, kindness and mercy are synonymous.

Jīve aṇukampae aṇubbhaḍe vigayasoge caritta- mohaṇijjaṁ kammaṁ khavei|”

- Uttarādhyayanasūtra, 29.1

The person who is compassionate, has no pride and without sorrow destroys the bondage of conduct-deluding (Cāritramohanīya) karma. That is, he transcends attachment and liberates.

Dhammo dayāvisuddho|”

- Bodhapāhuḍa, Kundakundācārya, 25.

The faith purified by mercy and compassion is dharma.

Savvebhūehiṁ dayāṇukampī|”

- Uttarādhyayanasūtra, 25.3

Be merciful and compassionate to all living beings.

Savvajagajīva rakkhaṇadayaṭṭhāe Bhagavayā sukahiyaṁ|”

- Praśnavyākaraṇa, 2.2.22

The Lord preached protection and mercy for all souls.

 

Tae ṇaṁ Mehā| Tāe pāṇāṇukampayāe java sattāṇu-kampayāe saṁsāre parittikae, māṇussāue ṇibaddhe|

- Jñātādharmakathā, Ch. 1

O’ Megha! Then, by virtue of being compassionate to the living beings, the creatures and the souls you limited your worldly existence and bonded the human lifespan.

Karuṇāe jīva-sahāvassa kammajaṇidatta virohādo|”

- Dhavalā comm. Book 13, p. 362.

Mercy is soul’s nature. Therefore, to consider it as karmic is contraindicated.

Maitrī pramoda kāruṇya mādhyasthāni sattvaguṇādhikakliṣyamānā|”

- Tattvārthasūtra, 7.6

One must have friendliness towards all living beings, a feeling of praise for the virtuous, kindness for the miserable and one of neutrality towards the impertinent.

Mitti me savvabhūesu veraṁ majjhaṁ na keṇaī|”

- Āvaśyakasūtra

I have no enmity towards any living being, only friendliness towards all.

Gilāṇaṁ veyāccaṁ karemāṇe samaṇe nigganthe mahāṇijjare

mahāpajjavasāṇe bhavati |”

 - Vyavahārasūtra

By serving the ill and the diseased, the knotless (detached) monk (©ramaṇa nirgrantha) gains great separation from the karmic bondage as well as destroys great amount of karma-matter.

 

Kāyaceṣṭayā dravyāntareṇa copāsanaṁ vaiyāvṛtyaṁ|”

- Sarvārthasiddhi commentary, 9.20

To render bodily service or to serve with money or other means is called service.

Gilāṇassa agilāe veyāvaccakaraṇatāe abbhuṭṭhe-tavvaṁ bhavati |”

- Sthānāṅga Sūtra, Ch. 8

Be ever ready to happily serve the weak, the ill and the diseased|

Parasparopagraho jīvānāṁ |”

- Tattvārthasūtra, 5.21

May all living beings support each other.

 

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