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JAINISM – THE CREED FOR ALL TIMES

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SELECTED GLOSSARY

Ācārya – (Spiritual) Master; Head of a monastic order.

Āgama – Received; imported. In the present context it means the canonical knowledge received from the tradition of omniscient Tīrthaṅkaras and the canon–omniscient Ācāryas (at least in the know of ten pūrvas.

Āgama – Scriptures or Canonical works. Particularly, Jaina canonical works are referred to as Āgama.

Ālocanā – Confession and criticism of own conduct flaws.

Agnipraveśamaraṇa – Death by self–immolation.

Akāmamaraṇa – Involuntary death by the ignorant.

Aṇagāra Cāritra – Monastic conduct.

Aṇuśiṣṭi – Instructing given by i. by the departing Ācārya to his successor and ii. By the Niryāpakācārya to the kṣaaka, in accordance with the canonical dictates.

Aniyat Vihāra – Unpredicted residence or tour.

Antaḥkriyā – The end–practice of embracing ‘voluntary peaceful death’ or Samādhimaraṇa.

Apraśsta – Ignoble.

Apraśsta maraṇa – Ignoble death – suicide committed in a fit of depression, frustration, etc. This is the suicide committed under the influence of most severe passions.

Arihā – Eligibility.

Artha – Meaning; interpretation.

Arthaśuddhi – Correct interpretation of text specially that of the scriptural text.

Aticāra – Flaws or excesses of right conduct.

Avicāra – Without deliberate consideration.

Bahumāna – Great regard.

Bāla – The ignorant one who has the right view but does not practice the right–conduct or the one is at the Avirat Samyagdṛṣṭi stage of spiritual development.

Bāla–bāla – The most ignorant who is devoid of all three – the right–vision, right–knowledge and the right–conduct (Avirat Mithyā–dṛṣṭti).

Bāla–bālamaraṇa – The death of the most ignorant who is devoid of all three – the right–vision, right–knowledge and the right–conduct.

Bālamaraṇa – The death of an aspirant at the bāla or Avirat Samyagdṛṣṭi stage.

Bāla–paṇḍita – The lay aspirant who is endowed with the right–vision and right–knowledge but devoid of the right monastic conduct. However, he is part renounced (Deśavirat Samyagdṛṣṭi).

Bāla–paṇḍitamaraṇa – The death of the lay aspirant who is endowed with the right–vision and right–knowledge but only part renounced (Deśavirat Samyagdṛṣṭi).

Bhaktapratyākhyāna – Renouncing (three or four kinds of) food.

Bhaktapratyākhyāna–maraṇa – Embracing voluntary death by renouncing food.

Bhāvanā – Repetition; Contemplation; Thought current.

Bhikṣu Pratimā –Advanced monastic practices.

Cāritra – Conduct.

Cyāvit – Forced separation by using external means.

Cyut – Natural separation.

Deśavratī – Part renounced, Observer of one or more of householders’ twelve vows.

Dhyāna – Meditation.

Diśā – Direction; Liberating sermon.

Dveṣa – Aversion.

Gītārtha – Master or preceptor highly learned in scriptural or canonical knowledge.

Garhā – Self denouncing and denigration for own misconduct.

Giripattanamaraṇa – To die by jumping off a mountaintop.

Gṛddhapṛṣṭhamaraṇa – Death by entering the carcass of a large animal and waiting for the carrion birds to pick one’s flesh and bones.

Hāni – Loss, depletion. In the present context it means gradual lessening of food given to the kṣapaka who has not been able to overcome the desire for food. This is done by explaining to him the value of overcoming the attachment for food.

Iṅginīmaraṇa – Embracing voluntary death by renouncing food and restricting movements to a confined area and service and assistance by the others.

Jalapraveśamaraṇa – Death by self– drowning.

Kāla – Time.

Kālamāna – Period.

Karma – 1. Action. 2. Karma matter or particles of Karma Pudgala Vargaṇā. 3. Karmic encumbrance earned through one’s actions.

Kaṣāya – Passions – anger, pride, deceit and greed.

Kavaca – Armour. Here, it means the quality of the kṣapaka to remain calm in the face of extreme hunger and pain by constantly reminding himself that such pain and misery is due to the rise and fruition of earlier bonded karma and that his very end–practice is a means to find a release from such trouble in future.

Kevalī – Enlightened omniscient.

Kevalīmarṇa –The death of the enlightened practitioners who have realised omniscience. (Also refer to Paṇḍitamaraṇa)

Kevalajñāna – Purest and infinite knowledge or omniscience.

Kṣāmaṇā – Quality of tolerance developed by forgiving others for their faults.

Kṣamaṇā – Seeking others’ forgiveness for own faults that may have hurt them. In the present context, it is the pardon begged by an Ācārya aspiring to practice Sallekhanā–Samādhimaraṇa just before he departs for joining another monastic group.

Kṣamāpanā – begging others’ pardon for one’s faults that may have hurt them. In the context of Sallekhanā–Samādhimaraṇa, it is the last pardon begged, near the final moments of one’s life, from the members of the monastic group to which a kṣapaka had migrated for his end–practice.

Kṣapaka – The practitioner aspiring to undertake the practice of Sallekhanā–Santhārā.

Leśyā – Spiritual hue or aura.

Liṅga – Gender or appearance.

Mārga – Way : the liberating path.

Mārgaṇā – Journey (for searching the supervising Ācārya for the practice of Sallekhanā–Samādhimaraṇa).

Mithyādarśana – False vision, false view, false belief, false attitude or false inclination.

Mithyādṛṣṭi – One who is in the grip of Mithyādarśana.

Mithyātva – Falsehood.

Moha – Delusion produced by false–vision.

Nāma – Name.

Nāma nikṣepa – Describing or referring by name.

Naya – Standpoint; Point of view.

NIdānamaraṇa – To die after making a binding wish.

Nikṣepa – Description; reference.

Nindā – Decrying or condemning own misconduct.

Ninhava – Heretic; preacher of falsehood against the precepts propounded by the omniscient Lords; Ungrateful disciple.

Niruddha – Restricted or constrained.

Niruddhatara – Very restricted or highly constrained.

Niryāmaka/Niryāpaka – Serving and assisting monk or nun.

Niryāmakācārya/Niryāpakācārya – The Ācārya under whose supervision and guidance the practice of Sallekhanā–Santhārā is undertaken.

Niṣcaya naya – Absolute standpoint.

Paṇḍita – The enlightened and restrained practitioner (vigilant monk) endowed with right–vision and right (monastic) conduct. Spiritually speaking, one at the Apramatta–saṁyatta stage is said to be a Paṇḍita.

Paṇḍitamaraṇa – The (voluntary) death of the enlightened and restrained practitioner or a vigilant monk endowed with right–vision and right (monastic) conduct.

Paṇḍita–paṇḍitamaraṇa – The (voluntary) death of the ultimately enlightened (omniscient) and ultimately restrained (practising the purest monastic conduct known as Yathākhyāt Cāritra) practitioner or a Kevalī. It is also known as Kevalīmaraṇa.

Parīkṣā – Suitability test, examination.

Paramaniruddhatara – Most restricted or extremely constrained.

Pariṇāma – Contemplation; Thought current.

Parityāga – Renunciation; Disposal.

Paścātāpa – Repentence.

Phala – Result or fruit of one’s actions.

Pragaṇacaryā – Migration to another monastic group.

Prakāshan – Exhibition. In the present context it means exhibiting various kinds of food to the kṣapaka in order to gaugae his lack of desire for food or otherwise.

Praśasta – Noble.

Praśasta maraṇa – Noble and peaceful voluntary death embraced by any of the three means of Sallekhanā– Samādhimaraṇa.

Pratilekhana – Inspection and rectification.

Pratimā – 1. Idol, image; 2. Advanced practices.

Pratyākhyāna – Taking the vow of some renunciation such as of giving up food, etc.

Prāyaścitta – Atonement for a flaw or a misconduct.

Prāyopagamana / Pādopagamana / Pādapopagamana maraṇa – Embracing voluntary death by renouncing all kinds of food and lying down at a place without any movement, like a fallen tree, and doing away with self–service as well as with service and assistance by the others.

Pudgala – Concrete formed matter that can be discerned by sense organs.

Rāga – Attachment.

Ratnatraya – The ‘TRI–GEM’ or the triad of right–vision, right–knowledge and right conduct that constitutes the liberating path.

Śikṣā – Education; Scriptural learning.

Śrāvaka Pratimā – Lay followers’ advanced practices.

Śreṇi – Ladder or stair case.

Śstrāvapāṭanamaraṇa – Death by the use of a weapon such as self–slaying or self–disembowelling, etc.

Sāgāra Cāritra – Householders’ or lay followers’ conduct.

Sakāmamaraṇa – Voluntary death by the enlightened practitioners.

Sallekhanā – External and internal penance to weaken the body and passions before undertaking the practice of Samādhimaraṇa.

Saṁnyāsamaraṇa – A synonym of Samādhimaraṇa, meaning ‘the death of an ascetic’.

Samādhi – State of equanimity of mind or psychic disposition; spiritual peace.

Samādhi – The state of equanimity of mind or that of being peaceful, calm and tranquil.

Samādhimaraṇa – Voluntary Peaceful Death.

Samatā – Maintaining equanimity in the face of favourable and unfavourable situations.

Samaya – The immeasurably smallest unit of time; Instant; Precept.

Samyagdarśana – Right vision, right view, right belief, right attitude or right inclination.

Samyagdṛṣṭi – One who is endowed with Samyagdarśana.

Samyagjñāna – Right–knowledge.

Samyakcāritra – Right conduct.

Santhārā – 1. erally, the grass–bed on which the kṣapaka lies for his end–practice. 2. Metaphorically, the practice of Samādhimaraṇa.

Savicāra – With due and deliberate consideration.

Smaraṇa – Recalling; reminding. To remind the kṣapaka, who loses his balance due to hunger or pain, about the nobility of the vow of end–practice taken by him.

Susthita – Well established – Ācārya who is practices flawless monastic conduct himself and is capable of guiding others in the practice of such monastic conduct.

Sūtra – Text.

Tadbhavamaraṇa – repeated deaths in the same species.

Tadubhaya – Both – text and meaning.

Tapa – Penance or austerity.

Tarupattanamaraṇa – To die by jumping off a treetop.

Tyakt – Renounced or left voluntarily.

Udyuktamaraṇa – A synonym of Samādhimaraṇa, meaning deliberate (voluntary) death.

Upadhāna – Observance with a specific purpose.

Upadhi – Monastic equipage such as Peacock–feather whisk (Picchi) and Water–gourd (Kamaṇḍalu) in the Digambara tradition and permitted clothes (Vastra), pots (Pātra), blanket (Kambal), Woollen whisk and broom (Rajoharaṇa and Katāsana), etc in the Śvetāmbara tradition.

Upādhyāya – Teacher–preceptor of canonical knowledge.

Upasampadā – Appraoaching the selected Ācārya for acceptance as a disciple.

Uttamārtha – 1. Literally – the ultimate goal of spiritual liberation, 2. Metaphorically – seeking the ultimate goal of spiritual emancipation and final deliverance by practising Samādhimaraṇa.

Vaihāyasamaraṇa – Committing suicide by hanging oneself.

Valanmaraṇa – Death after breaking the monastic vows due to inability to bear the hardships of monastic life.

Varganā – Class. Particularly of concrete matter (Pudgala).

Vinaya – Humility; conduct–rules.

Viṣabhakṣaṇamaraṇa – Death by self–poisoning.

Vratī – Monk, observer of fully restrained monastic conduct.

Vrata – Vow, renunciation.

Vyañjana – Consonant; meaningful word.

Vyavahāra – Practice; Business.

Vyavahāra naya – Practical standpoint.Svastika

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