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JAINISM – THE CREED FOR ALL TIMES

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

(Table of Contents: Original printed pagination.)

  • CONTENTS
  • PUBLISHER’S NOTE XV
  • FOREWORD XVII
  • DEDICATION XIX
  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENT XX
  • PREFACE XXI
  • BENEDICTION 3
  • BENEDICTION EXPLAINED 4
  • Arihanta 4
  • Siddha 5
  • Ācārya 7
  • Upādhyāya 8
  • Sādhu 8
  • Abridged Forms of Namaskāra Mahāmantra 9
  • SECTION – I : MAHĀV—RA AND JAINISM 11
  • 1. MAHĀV—RA : THE MESSIAH OF MERCY 13
  • Vardhamān Mahāvīra 13
  • Birth 13
  • Chidhood And Education 15
  • Mahāvīra Mahāvīra 15
  • Prince Mahāvīra 16
  • Monk Mahāvīra 16
  • Omniscient Tīrthaṅkara Mahāvīra 17
  • Messiah Of Mercy 18
  • Revolutionary Mahāvīra 19
  • Liberated Mahāvīra 21
  • 2. JAINISM : AN INTRODUCTI0N 23
  • Jaina Dharma 23
  • Universal Character Of Jainism 23
  • Eternality And Historicity Of Jaina Dharma 24
  • The Twenty–Four Tīrthaṅkaras 29
  • Three Hallmarks Of Jainism 30
  • Non–Violence (Ahiṁsā) 31
  • Restraint (Saṁyama) 31
  • Penance (Tapa) 35
  • Nature of Reality 43
  • The Soul And The Karma 44
  • The Theism Of Jainism 46
  • Jaina Axioms 47
  • 3. AHISĀ (NON–VIOLENCE) :
  • THE FOREMOST HALLMARK OF JAINISM 48
  • What Is Wrong With Hiṁsā? 48
  • The Life–Cycle 50
  • The Universal Character Of Non–violence 51
  • Non–Violence (Ahiṁsā) 53
  • The Basis of Non–Violence 55
  • The Jaina Concept of Non–Violence 56
  • What is Violence? 56
  • Manifestations of Violence 61
  • Who are the victims of Violence? 62
  • Non–Violence 63
  • Proscriptive Non–Violence 64
  • Positive Side of Non–Violence 64
  • Non–Violence in Relation to Environment 68
  • Non–Violence in the Scientific Age 69
  • The Ideal of Non–Violence 71
  • The Social Aspect of Non–Violence 72
  • Compassion : The Liberating Force 73
  • Compassion : The Concept 74
  • Compassion and Auspiciousness 74
  • What Is Compassion? 76
  • Who Deserves Compassion? 77
  • Compassion and Spiritual Emancipation 78
  • Can Compassion Ever Be Sinful? 79
  • Non–Violence in Practice 80
  • The Lay Followers’ Non–Violence 80
  • The Monastic Non–Violence 81
  • Vegetarianism:
  • An Essential Attribute Of Non–Violent Lifestyle 81
  • Non–violence : An Assurance Of –
  • Healthy Environment 83
  • Conclusion 85
  • SECTION – II : JAINA PHILOSOPHY 87
  • 4. TATTVĀRTHA (THE FUNDAMENTALS) 89
  • The Fundamentals 89
  • 1. Jīva Tatva (The Living Matter) or The Soul 91
  • 2. Ajīva Tattva (The Non–Living Matter) 95
  • Pudgala Dravya (Manifest Matter) 96
  • Dharma Dravya (Medium Of Motion) 98
  • Adharma Dravya (Medium Of Rest) 99
  • Ākāśa Dravya (Space–Matter) 100
  • Kāla–Dravya (Time–Matter) 101
  • Pañcāstikāya (Five Bodied Existences) 102
  • 3. Puṇya Tattva (Pious Activities) 102
  • 4. Pāpa Tattva (Sinful Activities) 103
  • 5. Āsrava Tattva (Karmic Influx) 105
  • 6. Bandha Tattva (Bondage) 108
  • The Causes Of Karmic Bondage 109
  • The Psychic And Substantive Bondage 109
  • Four Types Of Karmic Bondage 109
  • 7. Saṁvara Tattva (Karmic Stoppage) 111
  • The Means To Achieve Karmic Stoppage 112
  • 8. Nirjarā Tattva (Karmic Separation) 114
  • 9. Mokṣa Tattva (Liberation) 118
  • Conclusion 120
  • 5. SAMYAGDARŚAN (THE RIGHT–VIEW) 122
  • Everyone’s Own Peep–Hole 122
  • Darśan nd Samyagdarśan 122
  • The Importance Of Right–View 124
  • The Indicators Of Right–View 128
  • Four Organs Of Right–Vision 130
  • Types Of Right–Vision 131
  • Conclusion 135
  • 6. SAMYAGJÑĀNA (THE RIGHT–KNOWLEDGE) 138
  • The Ultimate Aim Of Life 138
  • The Right–Knowledge 138
  • Jaina View On Knowledge 139
  • What Is Knowledge? 139
  • What Is Right–Knowledge? 139
  • Five Stages Of Right–Knowledge 140
  • Jaina Canonical Literature 146
  • Ardhamāgadhī Canonical Literature 147
  • The Aṅga Sūtras 148
  • The Fourteen Pūrvas 153
  • Aṅgapraviṣṭha and Aṅgabāhya Āgama 155
  • The Four Anuyogas 157
  • The Latest Classification 157
  • Forty–Five Āgamas 160
  • Five Canonical Recitations 162
  • Śaurasenī Canonical Literature 164
  • Śaṭkhanḍāgama 164
  • Kasāyapāhuḍa (Kaṣāya Prābhṛta) 165
  • Canon–Equivalent Śaurasenī Literature 166
  • Ācārya Kundkunda’s Works 166
  • Tiloyapaṇṇatti By Yativṛṣabha 167
  • Mūlācāra By Vaṭṭakera 167
  • Bhagavatī–Ārādhanā By Śivārya 167
  • Kārtikeyānuprekṣā By Svāmi Kārtikeya 167
  • Ācārya Nemicandra’s Literature 168 Conclusion 168
  • 7. ANEKĀNTAVĀDA AND SYĀDVĀDA 170
  • Anekāntavāda and Syādvāda 170
  • Anekāntavāda 171
  • Syādvāda 174
  • Applied Anekānta 178
  • Conclusion 179
  • 8. KARMA–SIDDHĀNTA 181
  • Soul And Karma 181
  • Karma 181
  • The Karma Theory 182
  • The Importance Of Karma Theory 182
  • The Jaina Doctrine Of Karma 186
  • Causes Of Karmic Association 186
  • Karma At Material And Volitional Levels 187
  • Four Types Of Karmic Bondage 188
  • Various Stages Of Karma 196
  • The Means Of Achieving Karmic Separation 199
  • Karma : A Scientific Analysis 200
  • The Spiritual Benefits Of The Doctrine
  • Of Karma202
  • The Summary Of Jaina Karma Theory 204
  • 9. GUṆASTHĀNA :
  • STAGES OF SPIRITUAL ADVANCEMENT 206
  • The Soul’s Journey From Delusion
  • To Deliverance 206
  • Rise From Deluding Falsehood 207
  • Guṇasthāna : 208
  • The Fourteen Virtue–Stations (Guṇasthāna) 210
  • 1. Falsehood Stage(Mithyātva Guṇasthāna) 210
  • 2. Lingering Taste Stage(Sāsvādana Guṇasthāna)210
  • 3. Mixed Stage (Miśra Guṇasthāna) 211
  • 4. Right–Beliefed Unrenounced Stage
  • (Avirat Samyagdṛṣṭi Guṇasthāna) 211
  • 5. Part–Renounced Stage (DeśaviratGuṇasthāna)212
  • 6. Negligent Restraint Stage
  • (Pramatta Saṁ]yatta Guṇasthāna) 213
  • 7. Vigilant Restraint Stage
  • (Apramatta Saṁyatta Guṇasthāna) 213
  • 8. Gross Passion Dissimilarity Stage
  • (Nivṛtti Bādar guṇasthāna) 214
  • 9. Gross Passion Similarity Stage
  • (Anivṛtti Bādar Guṇasthāna) 214
  • 10. Fine Passions Stage
  • (Sūkṣma Samparāya Guṇasthāna) 215
  • 11. Passion–Subsided Detachment Stage
  • (Upaśāntakaṣāya Vītarāga Guṇasthāna) 215
  • 12. Delusion–Destroyed Detachment Stage
  • (Kṣīṇamoha Vītarāga Guṇasthāna) 216
  • 13. Embodied Omniscient Stage
  • (Sayogī Kevalī Guṇasthāna) 217
  • 14. Incorporeal Omniscient Stage
  • (Ayogī Kevalī Guṇasthāna) 218
  • Conclusion 218
  • SECTION – III : JAINA COSMOLOGY 219
  • 10. DRAVYA LOKA (MATERIAL UNIVERSE) 221
  • Universal Matter 221
  • Soul : The Life 221
  • Non–Soul : The Lifeless Universe 222
  • Tangible Matter 222
  • Soul–Bodies : Life–Lifeless Combined 223
  • Conclusion 225
  • 11. KETRA LOKA (SPATIAL UNIVERSE) 226
  • Universal Space 226
  • The Universe 229
  • The land Of The Liberated (Siddhaloka) 230
  • The Upper Universe (Urdhvaloka) 230
  • The Middle Universe (Madhyaloka) 231
  • The Nether Universe (Adholoka) 232
  • Conclusion 232
  • 12. KĀLA (Time : The Fourth Dimension) 233
  • Time (Kāla) 233
  • Time As A Material Constituent Of The Universe 234
  • The Importance Of Time 235
  • Measuring Time 236
  • Conclusion 238
  • 13. BHĀVA (MOODS AND MODES) 239
  • Reality : Permanence And Transience 239
  • Constantly Changing Moods And Modes 239
  • The Living Changes 240
  • The Non–Living Changes 241
  • Changes In Six Substances 242
  • Conclusion 244
  • SECTION – IV : JAINA ETHICS 245
  • 14. SĀGĀRA VINAYA
  • (The Householders’ Conduct) 247
  • Two Tiered Dharma Based On Right–Conduct 247
  • The Householders’ Conduct (Sāgāra Dharma) 248
  • On The Right Track 248
  • The Faithful Householder 250
  • Theism Of A Faithful Householder 251
  • The Reverent Householder 252
  • The Householders’ Vows And Their Excesses 252
  • Householders’ Advanced Practices
  • (Śrāvaka–pratimā) 268
  • Conclusion 271
  • 15. AṆAGĀRA VINAYA
  • (The Monastic Conduct) 272
  • The Monastic Conduct (Aṇagāra Dharma) 272
  • The Monastic Vows– 273
  • 1. The First Great Vow : Prāṇātipāta Viramaṇa Vrat (Renunciation Of All Kinds Of Violence) 273
  • 2. The Second Great Vow : Mṛṣāvād Viramaṇa Vrat (Renunciation Of All Falsehood) 274
  • 3. The Third Great Vow : Adattādāna Viramaṇa Vrat (Renunciation of Taking any Ungiven Thing) 275
  • 4. The Fourth Great Vow : Maithun Viramaṇa Vrat (Renoucing Sexual Indulgence) 276
  • 5. The Fifth Great Vow : Parigraha Viramaṇa Vrat (Renouncing Encumbrance) 277
  • 6. The Vow Of Refraining From Eating At Night
  • (Rātribhojan Viramaṇa Vrat) 279
  • Ten Monastic Duties (Daśa Muni–Dharma) 280
  • Monastic Virtues 280
  • Six Essentials (Ṣaḍāvaśyaka) 281
  • Monastic Routine (Sāmācārī) 282
  • Twelve Advanced Monastic Practices
  • (Bhikṣu Pratimā) 283
  • Preparation And Practice Of Voluntary Death
  • (Sallekhanā Santhārā) 287
  • Improper Monastic Conduct 288
  • Bearing Monastic Hardships 290
  • Types Of Monastic Ordinations 292
  • Renunciation And Exceptions 293
  • Vigilance (Samiti) And Restraint (Gupti) 293
  • Care Causes No Sins 293
  • Five–way vigilance (Pañca Samiti) 295
  • 1. Vigilant Movements (Iryā Samiti) 295
  • 2. Vigilant Speech (Bhāṣā Samiti) 297
  • 3. Vigilant Seeking Of Food Etc
  • (Eṣaṇā Samiti) 298
  • 4. Vigilant Care Of Monastic Equipage
  • (Ādāna–bhaṇḍa Nkṣepaṇā Samiti) 299
  • 5. Vigilant Disposal Of Wastes And Excretions
  • (Pariṣṭhāpanikā Samiti) 300
  • Three–Way Self–Control (Trigupti) 300
  • 1. Mental Self–Control (Manogupti) 301
  • 2. Vocal Self–Control (Vacan–Gupti) 301
  • 3. Physical Self–Control (Kāya–Gupti) 302
  • Conclusion 302
  • SECTION –V : JAINA LEGENDS 303
  • 16. NAMI PRAVRAJYĀ
  • (THE ORDINATION OF NAMI) 305
  • Nami’s Plight 305
  • Nami’s Detachment 306
  • Śakra : The Heavenly King’s Sojourn To Mithilā 306
  • Śakra Talks To Nami 307
  • The Moral Of The Story 311
  • 17. AṆḌAK (THE LEGEND OF THE EGGS) 313
  • Peahen’s Eggs 313
  • The Merchants’ Sons 313
  • The Doubting Son Of Sāgardatta 315
  • The Trusting Son Of Jinadatta 315
  • Success Through Firm Belief 316
  • The Moral Of The Story 316
  • 18. MṚGĀPUTR—YA:
  • (THE TALE OF MṚGĀ’S SON) 317
  • Mṛgāputra 317
  • The Detachment Of Mṛgāputra 318
  • The Rigours Of Monastic Life 319
  • Moral Of The Story 322
  • 19. ROHIṆ— KATHĀ (THE LEGEND OF ROHIṆ—) 323
  • Rohiṇī 323
  • Dhanya’s Thought 323
  • The Council 324
  • Ujjhikā’s Logic 325
  • Bhogavati’s Logic 325
  • Rakṣikā’s Logic 325
  • Rohiṇi’s Logic 326
  • Thoughts Into Action 326
  • Dhanya Recalls The Paddy Grains 327
  • Ujjhikā’s Insult 327
  • Bhogavati’s Bungling 328
  • Respected Rakṣikā 329
  • Rohiṇi’s Glorious Surprise 329
  • The Moral Of The Story 330
  • SECTION – VI : PRACTICAL JAINISM 333
  • JAINISM AND PERSONAL HAPPINESS 335
  • Personal Happiness 335
  • Causes Of Misery 335
  • Jaina Way For Happiness 336
  • Happiness Through Meditation 337
  • Happiness Of The Clerical Life 338
  • Happiness Through The Lay Followers’
  • Life–Style 338
  • Conclusion 339
  • JAINISM AND SOCIAL HARMONY 340
  • Importance Of Social Harmony 340
  • Causes Of Social Conflicts 341
  • Jainism : The Remedy For Social Conflicts 342
  • Conclusion 345
  • JAINISM AND WORLD–PEACE 346
  • World–Peace : The Need Of The Time 346
  • Causes Of Conflict 347
  • Jaina Answer For Conflict Resolution And –
  • For Ushering World Peace 349
  • Conclusion 351
  • ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS OF JAINISM 353
  • Environmental Calamity 353
  • Environmental Concerns Of Jainism 353
  • The Causes Of Environmental Degradation 354
  • The Jaina Remedy 354
  • Ecological Balance And Jaina Way Of Life 354
  • Jaina Vows And Environmental Protection 355
  • Vegetarianism : The Most Important–
  • Environmental Protection 356
  • Conclusion 357
  • LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT
  • THROUGH ANEKĀNTA APPROACH 359
  • Management And Anekāntavāda 359
  • Applied Anekānta In Various Fields Of
  • Management 360
  • Organisational Essentials And Anekānta 361
  • Anekānta And Areas Of Management 363
  • Anekānta And Management Functions 365
  • Conclusion 366
  • Jaina Precepts For Personality
  • Development 368
  • Personality 368
  • Personality Development 368
  • Physical Aspect Of Personality 368
  • Intellectual Aspect Of Personality 369
  • Psychological and Emotional Aspects
  • of Personality 370
  • Influence of Jaina Precepts on Personality
  • Development 371
  • Moral Aspect Of Personality 373
  • Conclusion 374
  • CONCLUDING REMARKS 375
  • APPENDICES i
  • 1. Transliteration Convention iii
  • 2. Selected Glossary iv
    • 3. Bibliography xiii

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