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Jainism – a way of life

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GLOSSARY OF IMPORTANT WORDS

Ajiva Non-living things
Ārati or Aarti Ritual of waving a lamp, divo in front of an image of God
Āchārānga First in the list of Āgam scriptures Āgam Scriptures as per Shvetāmbara tradition
Āchārya Head spiritual teacher and head of a group of monks
Adatta things/objects not given to oneself
Aghāti Types of karmas which can not be destryoed
Ahimsā Non-violence
Akbar Mogul emperor born in 1542 AD
Akhātrij Third day of the month of vaishakh in Indian calendar
Akshay tritiyā Same as above, Jain Holy Day, day on which first Tirthankara Rushabhdev broke his fast and accepted sugar-cane juice
Anāthami Rule of not eating anything after sunset
Anekanta vada Theory of many sided approach. Philosophy of understanding others’ view points
Anu vrata Minor vows
Anga First group of scriptures, inner limbs
Ansan Things one eat, mainly solid foods
Aparigraha Non acquisition
Ardha Māgadhi Ancient language of scriptures
Arhat An enlightened soul same as Arihant(a)
Arihant(a) As above
Asad Non truth
Āshrava Flow of karma (karmik particles) towards soul
Asteya Non stealing
Ātma Soul
Avadhān simultaneously. Hundred avadhan is considered a big achievement
Āyambil Festival of penance where only limited and restricted food is taken.
Bandh Binding of karma particles
Beej Seed, special letter(s) in combination of mantra
Bhagvān ‘God’ though not creator
Bhārand Name of a bird who has sharp, watchful eyes
Bhāv Feelings
Bhāvana As above, there are 12 bhāvanas or subjects for meditation
Bhinnamāls Name of town, sub caste of Jains
Brahmcharya Celebacy
Chaitya Temple, place for meditation
Chakra Centres in body. Meditation points
Chandragupta Name of a king of Maurya dynasty
Charananuyogā Type of scriptures, more to do with practice.
Chaturvidh sangha Jain order consisting of monks, nuns, laymen and laywomen
Chhed sutra Types of scriptures
Chyavan Conception
Dasā Sub caste of Jains
Das Lakshan Parva Digambara sect follow this festival where in 10 virtues are ‘worshipped’
Derāvāsi Those who believe in temple worship
Dev-dravya A fund collected for temple building or restorations only
Dharma Religion, duty
Digambara One of the main sects of Jains, see Shvetāmbara
Dikshā Initiation
Dhyāna Meditation, contemplation
Dravya Material, substance
Dravyānuyogā Types of scriptures
Dwidal Food having dual life
Gautam Disciple of Bhagvān Mahāvir
Ghāti Karmas having a vitiating effect
Gitā (or Bhagvad Gitā) Hindu Holy book
Hemchandrāchārya Jain monk, scholar 11th century
Hirvijaysuri Another Jain monk, 16th century
Janma Birth
Jāvadshāh Name of a rich merchant who donated immense wealth during famine
Jina Spiritual victor
Jiva Life
Jiv-Dayā Compassion towards all living beings
Jyotishika Stellar objects (gods)
Kand-mool Root vegetables
Karma Action, matter which binds the soul
Kalpa sutra Holy book which consists the biography of Bhagvān Mahāvir in detail and other Tirthankaras in short
Kalyānak Day of particular celebration, auspicious day
Kausagga Jain form of meditation wherein the feelings of attachment with one’s own body evaporates.
Keval Gyān (Gnān) Omniscience
Khādim Dry fruits and similar things
Kumbh Jar
Kumārpāl Name of a king, a patron of Jainism in 11th century
Lesyā Thought complexion, degree of purity expressed in the tinge of colour
Lonkāshāh Founder of Sthānakvāsi sect
Mahābhārat Hindu epic
Mahāvrata Major vows
Mantra Verse, holy hymn
Meru Name of the mountain
Mithyātva False belief
Moksha Final emancipation, same as Nirvāna
Moorti-poojak Those who worship idols, images
Mudrā Sign
Mul sutra Types of scriptures
Nām or Naam Name
Namaskār Bowing down
Namokār Bowing down
Navakār Nine pada or sentences
Navnāt Mixture of nine castes, mostly Jains, in Britain
Navpad- oli Festival when nine ‘pada’ (places, objects) are worshipped whilst doing ayambil- penance
Nirjarā Shedding off karmas
Nirvāna See moksha
Pachchakhān Restrictions and vows observed for a limited period
Padmāsan A lotus posture
Pālitānā Pilgrimage place in Gujarāt state, India
Panjrāpoles A place where sick, invalid animals are kept and being looked after
Pān Liquid food (not paan which means leaf)
Parikar Decorative carving around an idol
Pārmānu An indivisible particle of matter
Pārsva 23rd Tirthankara
Paryushan A religious festival of Jains, usually in August or September
Pātanjali Founder of Hindu yoga system
Pooja Worship
Pravachansār A holy book by Kundkundāchārya
Pratikraman A ritual of repentance
Rājul A princess who was to marry Nemkumar. Nemkumar however did not marry her and became a monk who is known as Nemināth, 22nd Tirthankara
Rāmāyan Hindu epic
Rushabhdev First Tirthankara
Sādhu Monk
Sāmāyik Ritual meditation lasting approximately 48 minutes
Samvar Stoppage of flow of karma- particles
Samvat Year or era
Samvatsari Annual (last day of Paryushan festival )
Samyag (or samyak) darshan Right or enlightened vision/faith
Samyag gyan Right or Enlightened knowledge
Samyag charitra Right and enlightened conduct
Sangha Jain order consisting of laymen, lay women, monks and nuns, sometimes referred to as Jain people
Sanlekhnā Ritual invitation to death
Sanyam Self control
Satsang Getting together for devotional singing or learning religious books
Satya Truth
Shalya Sting
Shilā Abode
Shraman Name given to a tradition of non-violence
Shrāvak Srāvak Layman
Shrāvikā Srāvikā Lay woman
Shukla Bright, highest state
Siddha Liberated soul(s)
Sruta As heard, scriptures
Shvetāmbar One of the two major sects in Jain faith, those who wear white clothes. Other sect is Digambara. Digambara monks are sky-clad, they do not wear clothes
Sthānakvāsi Sect which do not believe in temple worship
Swādhyāy Study groups
Swādim Certain digestive products eaten after meal
Tantra Science of mantras and yantras
Tapa Austerities
Tattavārtha sutra A holy book compiled by Umāswāti, This book is accepted by Shvetāmbara Digambara both sects
Tejo lesyā Heat producing, burning lesya
Terāpanthi A sect within Jainism
Tirtha Pilgrimage place, also termed as sangha
Tirthankara A Tirthankara is an enlightened soul and the founder of an order of Jain sangha
Tiryanch Animal and plants
Tripitaka(s) Buddhist holy books
Upādhyāya Spiritual teachers
Upānga Subsidiary holy books, scriptures
Uttarādhyayan sutra One of the scriptures
Vandan Bowing down
Vaniā(s) Merchants
Vanik(s) As above
Vardhamān Name given to Bhagvān Mahāvir
Varganā Particles (of karma)
Varshitap Penance-lasting one year
Vitarāga Without attachment and aversion
Yagna A ritual where fire is lit and offerings made into the fire
Yaksha Semi Gods
Yakshini Semi- Goddess
Yantra Diagram used in worship, Mandala

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