death with equanimity



(Chapter IV, cont.)

4.4 – 4.44

4.4 Voluntary Death In The Buddhist Literature –

The Buddhist canonical literature is eloquent about the inevitability of the slipping of the life–force and that of decay “old–age” and death. It says, “The life is slipping, the life–span is very short, there is no escape from old–age. The man must realise the fearful reality of death and perform pious deeds whose results are pleasurable.”i Again, they go on to say that there is no escape from death, “ When, at the end the terminator – Yama, the god of death – comes calling at the end of the life–span, neither the sons nor the father nor the brethren nor the kinsmen can save one from his clutches. ii

The Abhidhamma–piṭaka mentions four causes of death. They are – 1. Expiry of life–span, 2. Extinction of life–span determining karma, 3. Both of them and 4. Destructive karma.iii Voluntary death falls in the category of death due to destructive karma. The Buddhist belief, as enunciated in ‘Abhidhamma Philosophy’ further states, “At the time of death, due to the strength of his karma, either of the following appear before him at any of the six doors “eye–door, ear–door, nose–door, tongue–door, touch–door and mind–door”iv

  1. The Karma,

  2. An article that had been generally associated with the performance of that Karma, or

  3. The sign of destiny that awaits him in his next life.

After that, upon that very object presented before him, his thoughts, either pure or evil are directed, very much in accordance with the realm in which he is going to be born, due to the inevitable retribution – result of his karma. Alternatively, he feels as if he is doing that very action, which goes to condition his next birth, at that very time.’v

To one who is at the point of death, at the end of his Vīthi–citta “the object presented before him”, or at the expiry of his Bhavaṅga, the culi–citta “Reflective consciousness”vi arises and sinks down, which is the last phase of one’s present life. Just after that, the Paṭisandhi – consciousness rises up in the next life, impelled by the latent force of ignorance, arising as a result of Karma rooted in desire, associated with all its concomitants, and being in the centre of all the states arising with it. It joins this life with the other, according to the circumstances, upon the same object as presented before him, being the first moment of consciousness in that life, it may rise up there either on a physical base or even without it “i.e. in the Arūpa Loka”.”vii

The Buddhist canonical works that deal with the conduct of the monks and nuns are Vinaya–piṭka, Visuddhimaggo, Dhammapada and some of the Nikāya volumes. As the end–practice of voluntary death as a part of one’s spiritual practices fall in this category, we shall now examine these works, in some detail, as to their support or otherwise to this practice. However, while undertaking this examination we must bear in mind the basic difference in the philosophies that underlie the two faiths. While the Jaina philosophy advocates severe penance as a means of spiritual purification and consequent final deliverance, the Buddhist philosophy believes in the middle path that out–rightly rejects extreme forms of penance and terms them as bodily torture.

4.41 Vinaya–piṭaka And Voluntary Death –

As we have seen already, Vinaya Piṭaka is a treatise that regulates the conducts of the Buddhist clergy, both the monks and the nuns. In its first part, Pātimokkha, that lays down the rules of conduct for the monks under the subtitle Bhikkhu–Pātimokka and for the nuns under Bhikkhuni–Pātimokkha, there are detailed rules of conduct that can call for an expulsion, or suspension from the monastic order, of a member of the clergy depending upon the severity of his or her flaws of conduct.

The severest of these rules are grouped under the group called Pārājika or the flaws that invite expulsion of a member of the clergy from the monastic order. The Pārājikas are four for the monksviii – 1. Maithun “Sexual intercourse”, 2. Caurya “Stealing”, 3. Manuṣya–hatya “human killing” and 4. Divya–śakti Praṇidhāna “Claim to divine powers” – and seven for the nunsix – 1. Maithun “Sexual intercourse”, 2. Caurya “Stealing”, 3. Manuṣya–hatyā “Killing a human being”, 4. Divya–śakti Praṇidhāna “Claim to divine powers”, 5. Kamāsakti karma “Amorous acts”, 6. Saṅghatyāgānugamana “leaving the monastic order” and 7. Kāmasakti Pūrvak Puruṣa–sparśa “To touch a male person with amorous intent”.

In these Pārājikas the flaw of killing a human being is common to both. It also includes self–slaying or suicide. The rule states that a Bhikṣu that knowingly kills a human being or seeks weapons for committing suicide, or praises death and encourages or forces someone to die by tauntingly hinting at his flaws and maintaining that his death is better than his life, is a Pārājika.

It is plain from the enunciation that Lord Buddha did not approve of human killings as well as of committing of suicides and considered them as conduct–flaws severe enough to merit expulsion from the monastic order. However, we must not overlook one point that merits consideration, is that voluntary death under the extreme circumstances of incurably diseased and hopelessly decayed aspirant does not come under its purview. When his bodily condition not only renders him unable to engage himself in any spiritually uplifting activity but also mars the purity or sublime nature of his disposition due to the pain wrought by such condition cannot be termed as suicide. Under the right mental condition, the voluntary death must be looked upon as a means of easing his torturous misery only. This point is amply borne out from the instances of Bhikṣu Vakkali Kulaputra, Bhikṣu Channa, etc whose voluntary deaths under the extreme circumstances of extreme old age and terminal illnesses were condoned by Lord Buddha, saying that they were not suicides but acts necessitated by extreme circumstances. According to Lord Buddha, it did not earn them any demerit but, on the contrary, yielded them the ultimate fruit of mokṣa.

From this, it becomes clear that the Buddhist thought does not directly support voluntary death but does so only on the merits of the individual cases.

4.42 Visuddhimaggo On Voluntary Death –

Visuddhimaggo “Viśuddhimārga” is a very important Buddhist work that is primarily devoted to the subject of Yoga “mental physical and vocal discipline”, as the Buddhist seers see it. Its twenty–three chapters are devoted to various disciplines and types of contemplation that any spiritual aspirant must undertake to attain spiritual emancipation and consequent liberation. Its eighth chapter, ‘Anussati–kammatthāna–niddeso “Anusmṛti Karmasthāna Nirdeśa”’ x is, amongst other things, devoted to the contemplation of death “Maraṇa–smṛti”. It mentions two types of death – 1. Timely death “Kāla–maraṇa” and 2. Untimely death “Akāla–maraṇa”. Kāla–maraṇa or the timely death occurs due to the exhausting of merits “Puṇya–kṣaya” and/or life span “Āyu–kṣaya”. The Akāla–maraṇa or the untimely death occurs when the life sustaining karma is exhaustedxi or when a destructive karma is committed.

It is interesting to note that the voluntary death of any kind, including the voluntary peaceful death can occur only due to the exhausting of the life sustaining karma. When an aspirant takes the vow of Samādhimaraṇa and gives up food altogether, he is doing nothing but to exhaust his accumulated karma–matter, including those that sustain life “bonded with the soul” as well as ensuring, through the equanimity of mind, that he does not incur new karma. Thus, when the life sustaining karma exhausts the death occurs. This also implies that it is actually possible to telescope the life span “Ayuṣya” by exhausting the life sustaining karma through suitable measures. If these measures are peaceful and calm, as in the case of Samādhimaraṇa, the death is peaceful “Samādhi–maraṇa” and if the means are violent, as in the case of suicide, the death is violent and dreadful.

Viśuddhimārga says that the death is inevitable. Therefore, the death must be contemplated and thought about. The reflection about the inevitability of death relieves one from the misery of the deaths of the near and dear ones and from the fear of own death. According to this work, the death must be contemplated in the following eight waysxii:–

  1. Vadhikaparyupasthānataḥ – The death can strike at any time as if the executioner is standing by ready to strike anytime.

  2. Sampatti–vipattitaḥ – Contemplation to the effect that all wealth is exhaustible and it ends in its opposite. Like pleasure ends in pain, the health ends in disease and the youth ends in decay. Likewise, the life ends in death.

  3. Upasaṁharaṇataḥ – By comparison with others one must contemplate that the death has not spared even the most powerful ones, the most famous ones, the most wealthy ones, the most handsome ones and the most learned ones. Therefore, it is not going to spare him either.

  4. Kāyabahusādhāraṇataḥ – The contemplation that the body is a common feature, helps. Even the lowliest of creatures like worms have bodies. Through this contemplation, one reduces the attachment towards the body and overcomes fear of death, which is nothing but the loss of body.

  5. Āyudaurbalyataḥ – Contemplating that the thread of life is very weak and is likely to snap at any time, one does not fear death when it comes calling.

  6. Animittataḥ – Contemplation to the effect that the death is not causative but uncertain, therefore, it cannot be predicted. The five uncertainties are – 1. Life, 2. Illness, 3. Time of death, 4. Place of death and 5. Destiny.

  7. Ardhānaparicchedataḥ – The life–span is limited and it is bound to end sometime or the other, and

  8. Kṣaṇaparittataḥ – The contemplation on the limited “but unknown” number of moments of life that are bound to exhaust at one time or the other, removes the fear of death.

This is the nearest that the Buddhist thought gets to the concept of ‘Peaceful death’ or ‘Samādhi–maraṇa’. In keeping with its philosophy of following the middle path in the matters of spiritual practices, it stops short of prescribing voluntary death, even the peaceful one, for its followers “Not withstanding the condoning of voluntary death under extreme circumstances as has been quoted from other works”.

4.43 Dhammapada On Voluntary Death –

In keeping with the Buddhist philosophy of following the middle path, there is no clear prescription of the adoption of the extreme form of penance in the form of ‘fast unto death’ as the means of voluntary peaceful death “Samādhimaraṇa” in Dhammapada. However, some of its verses bear enough evidence of the acceptance of a short and spiritually meaningful life rather than a long and unproductive one. The Jaina thought says that once the body becomes incapable of performing the spiritually productive monastic or lay followers’ duties, it must be discarded in the most peaceful manner. The verses in Dhammapada aver to a similar line of thought when they variously state that one day’s life of righteous endeavour is better than a hundred years’ of unrighteous one. The following are the instances of such a line of thought:–

  • It is useless if an unrighteous and unrestrained person lives for a hundred years. “Comparatively” one day’s life of a righteous and contemplative one is far better”.xiii

  • It is useless if a wicked and unrestrained person lives for a hundred years. “Comparatively” one day’s life of a wise and contemplative one is far better”.xiv

  • It is useless if a lazy and impotent person lives for a hundred years. “Comparatively” one day’s life of a vigorous and vigilant one is far better”.xv

  • It is useless if a person that does not see the constant rise and fall of elements lives for a hundred years. “Comparatively” one day’s life of the one that sees such rise and fall is far better”.xvi

  • It is useless if a person who cannot see the liberation lives for a hundred years. “Comparatively” one day’s life of the one that can see the liberation is far better”.xvii

  • It is useless if a person who cannot see the noble path “of final deliverance” lives for a hundred years. “Comparatively” one day’s life of the one that can see the noble path is far better”.xviii

Thus, we see that though Dhammapada does not support the concept of voluntary death directly, it has certain elements that convey Lord Buddha’s thoughts to the effect that a day’s righteous life devoted to the pursuit and practice of right–conduct is better than a long but useless life. When life cannot perform the requisite spiritual duties due to illness or extreme old age and it may be pertinent for the aspirant monk “Bhikṣu” or lay follower “Upāsaka” to take recourse to seek voluntary death. If such death can be in the state of mental equanimity and equilibrium “Citta–samādhi”, so much the better.

As far as an incident of voluntary death is concerned, it mentions the case of Vakkali who was deeply attached to Lord Buddha. Buddha, fearing that his attachment may result in unbreakable karmic bondage for Vakkali, instructed him to go away from Him and practice penance there. Vakkali could not bear separation from Lord Buddha and decided to end his life.xix This, however cannot be considered as an instance of Samādhimaraṇa as it was undertaken in a fit of frustration due to separation from Lord Buddha whom he admired and loved dearly.

4.44 Instances Of Voluntary Death In Saṁyutta–nikāya –

Several episodes are available in the Saṁyutta–nikāya, which throw some light on Lord Buddha’s views on the voluntary death with mental equanimity or otherwise. Besides Sīṭha, Sappadāsa and Godhikaxx who were suffering from incurable diseases and ended their lives voluntarily, the following instances of Bhikṣu Vakkali Kulaputra and Bhikṣu Channa clearly reveal Lord Buddha’s approval for voluntary deaths under extreme circumstances when leading of normal monastic or righteous life becomes impossible due to incurable diseases or due to some other circumstances. The following are the details of these two episodes:–

  1. Bhikṣu Vakkali Kulaputra – Once Lord Buddha was staying in the Kalandaka Nivāsa in the Veluvana Udyāna “garden” in the Magadha town of Rājagraha. At that very time Bhikṣu Vakkali Kulaputra was also staying in the Kumbhakāra–niveśana “the house of a potter” of the same town. Bhikṣhu Vakkali Kulaputra was quite old and was lying on the bed suffering from uninterrupted pain due to incurable terminal illness.xxi He asked the monks serving him that they should go to the Lord “Buddha” and after conveying his obeisance to Him, request him to come over and visit him as he himself was very weak and feeble to go and visit the Lord. The Lord was very kind to visit him where he was lying, consoled him that he ought not to worry about his inability to visit Him, and said that anyone who saw the true and righteous faith always saw Him. The Lord, after so consoling him left for his abode atop the Gṛdhrakūṭa hill. Thereupon Bhikkhu Vakkali Kulaputra asked the monks serving him that he didn’t wish to give up his ghost in the house of a householder and, therefore, they should remove him to the death–rock “Kāla–śilā” at the back of the ṛṣigili. The monks attending on him did as he had asked them to. That night as the Lord was engaged in His meditation atop the Gṛdhra– kūṭa hill, two heavenly gods came to Him and one of them said that Bhikṣu Vakkali Kulaputra was, then, engaged in the contemplation of final liberation and that he would, surely, attain freedom from karma and liberate. Next morning the Lord sent some monks to Bhikṣu Vakkali Kulaputra and, through them, conveyed to him that his end would be sinless. On hearing this Bhikṣu Vakkali Kulaputra asked the monks attending on him that they should take him off the bed and lay him down on the rock. The monks did as they were bidden. Bhikṣu Vakkali Kulaputra then despatched the monks to the Lord with the message that his mind was at peace and that he was no longer attached to or averted from anything. Having so despatched the monks Bhikṣu Vakkali Kulaputra took a weapon and ended his life voluntarily.xxii When Lord Buddha came to know about this, He, with many other monks, came to where Bhikṣu Vakkali Kulaputra had voluntarily ended his life and saw his mutilated body.xxiii Then, all those present there saw a black form moving some times in the North direction, some times in the South, some other times in the East, yet some other times in the West, as well as in the upper and the nether directions or in the directions in betweenxxiv. Lord Buddha invited the attention of the monks and told them not to entertain any doubts about the destiny of Bhikṣu Vakkali Kulaputra as the black form so wandering in all directions was the sinful Māra that was looking for the manifest soul “Vijñāna” of the dead Bhikṣu. However, Bhikṣu Vakkali Kulaputra had overcome all his sins, attained enlightenment and liberated without his soul having established anywhere.xxv It is clear from the incident that Lord Buddha did not have any misgivings about voluntarily embracing death under extreme circumstances of extreme old age and incurable disease.

  2. Bhikṣu Channa – Once Lord Buddha was staying in the Kalandaka Nivāsa in the Veluvana Udyāna “garden” in the Magadha town of Rājagraha. At that very time Bhikṣu Sāriputra, Bhikṣu Mahācunda and Bhikṣu Channa were also staying on the Gṛddhakūta hill. At that time Bhikṣu Channa was very old and suffered from incurable diseases. Bhikṣu Sāriputra talked about his condition to Bhikṣu Mahācunda and said ‘we must go to Bhikṣu Channa to enquire after his health’.xxvi Thereupon, together, they went to where Bhikṣu Channa was lying and seated themselves in the easy posture “Paryaṅkāsana”. Having seated so, Bhikṣu Sāriputra spoke to Bhikṣu Channa thus – “O’ blessed Channa µ how are you? Are you well? Is your malady bearable? How are you doing? I hope that your pain is reducing and that it is not on the increase. I hope, too, that you are at ease.”xxvii

To this Bhikṣu Channa replied – “O Blessed Sāriputra µ I am neither well nor at ease. My pain and my troubles are not reducing but they are on the increase. I am unable to bear them. Therefore, O’ blessed Sāriputra µ I do not wish to live on but wish to terminate my life. I shall, therefore, bring a weapon and end my life.”xxviii

Then, blessed Mahācunda said to blessed Channa thus – “Therefore, O’ blessed Channa µ here are the Lord’s teachings for the monks that must be obeyed by them always and every time – ‘Only the attached perish, the detached ones do not. If destroyed due to attachment to things mundane, the monks earn defame; certainly, they do not earn fame. Those “attached ones” who hanker after fame do not gain “true” knowledge. In the absence of “true” knowledge they do not gain good or bad destinies. In the absence of good or bad destinies, there are no births and deaths and in the absence of births and deaths, there are neither manifestations nor cessations nor both. Thus they end their miseries.”xxix Having advised thus to blessed Channa, blessed Sāriputra and blessed Mahācunda got up and left. Shortly after those blessed monks left Bhikṣu Channa took a weapon and using that weapon, he immediately, without losing any time, voluntarily ended his life.xxx

Then, blessed Sāriputra came to where the Lord was and after reverently bowing to the Lord sat down on one side. Having seated himself on one side, blessed Sāriputra said to the Lord, “O’ Blessed Lord µ BhikṣuChanna has ended his life with a weapon. What is his destiny and what is his destination?”xxxi

The Lord enquired of Sāriputra, “Had Bhikṣu Channa revealed his flawlessness to you? xxxii

To this Sariputra replied that Bhikṣu Channa frequently visited his pre–monastic ordination family, friends and well–wishers that lived in the Vajji village by the name of Purvavijñāna. xxxiii

It is so, O’ blessed Sāriputra µ blessed Channa had his family, friends and well–wishers in the Pūrvavijñāna village of the Vajjis. Surely, I do not consider visiting them as a fault. Therefore, you must consider that Bhikṣu Channa had struck his body with the weapon in a state of Uppvrajyā whereby he does not gain another body but liberates. Know that much”.xxxiv

This incident also proves that Lord Buddha did not disapprove of voluntary death, even with the use of a weapon, under extreme circumstances like extreme old age, terminal illnesses and unbearable pain, which could otherwise, disturb the equanimity of mind.

  1. GodhikāGodhikā an upāsikā “lay householder follower of the Buddhist faith” also suffered from an incurable disease and after trying all possible remedies, she ended her life voluntarily. Lord Buddha praised her self–sacrifice and said that she has liberated.xxxv This incident, unequivocally, proves that Lord Buddha approved of embracing of voluntary deaths when a monk or even a householder suffered from incurable disease and wished to end his/her life peacefully rather than to keep on suffering and incurring fresh karmic bonds due to unwarranted thoughts. It can very well be compared to Samādhimaraṇa according to Jaina precepts.

i “Upanīyati jīvitaṁ appamāyu, jarīpanītassa na santi tāṇā |

Etaṁ bhayaṁ maraṇaṁ pekkhamāṇo, puññāni kariyāth sukhāvahāni ||

Aṅguttara–nikāya, p. 159. ‘Q. from ‘Āgama Aur Tripiṭaka : Eka Anuśīlana’, Vol III, Muni Nagaraj, Concept Publishing Company, New Delhi, Ed. I. 1991, p. 2.’

ii “Na santi puttā tāṇāya, na pitā nāpi bandhavā |

Antakenāpi pannasya, natthi ātisu tāṇatā ¤||” – Dhammapada, 20. 16. Quoted from ‘Āgama Aur Tripiṭaka : Eka Anuśīlana’, Vol III, ibid, p. 2.

iii “Āyukkhyena, kammakhayena, ubhyakkhayena, upacchedakakammunā ceti catudhā maraṇuppatti nāmā.”

Abhidhamma–piṭaka, Vīthi–mutta, XXXIV. ‘Q. from ‘Abhidhamma Philosophy’, Bhikkhu J. Kāshyapa, Bhāratiya Vidya Prakashan, Delhi – Vāranasi, Ed. 2, 1996, p. 162.’

iv Abhidhamma Philosophy, ibid, p. 122.

v Ibid, XXXV. Quoted ibid, p. 163.

vi Abhidhamma Philosophy ibid, p. 122.

viiAbhidhamma–piṭaka, Vīthi–mutta, XXXVI. ‘Q. ‘Abhidhamma Philosophy’, Ibid, p. 163.’

viiiVinaya Piṭaka, Rahul Sankrityayan, Bauddha Akar Granthmala, Kashi Vidyapith, Varanasi, Ed. I, 1994, 1, 1, 1–4, p. 8–9.

ixVinaya Piṭaka, ibid, 1, 1, 1–7, p.42–43.

x Visuddhimaggo, Ācārya Buddhaghoṣa, Hindi Commentary by Dr. Tapasyā Upādhyaya, Pt. II, Bauddha Bhāratī, Vārāṇasī, Ed. I, 1995, p.34.

xi Visuddhimaggo, Pt. II Ibid. p.34.

xii Ibid. pp. 35–43.

xiii “Yo ca vassasataṁ jīve, dussīlo asamāhito |

Ekāhaṁ jīvitaṁ seyyo, sīlavantassa jhāyino || 110 ||” – Dhammapadaṁ ibid., p.48.

xiv “Yo ca vassasataṁ jīve, duppañño asamāhito |

Ekāhaṁ jīvitaṁ seyyo, paññāvantassa jhāyino || 111 ||” – Dhammapadaṁ ibid., p.48.

xv “Yo ca vassasataṁ jīve, kusīto hīnavīriyo |

Ekāhaṁ jīvikaṁ seyyo, viriyamārabhato dalahaṁ || 112 ||” – Dhammapadaṁ ibid, p.48.

xvi “Yo ca vassasataṁ jīve, apassa udaya–vyayaṁ |

Ekāhaṁ jīvitaṁ seyyo, passato udaya–vyayaṁ || 113 ||” – Dhammapadaṁ ibid., p.49.

xvii “Yo ca vassasataṁ jīve, apassa amata padaṁ |

Ekāhaṁ jīvitaṁ seyyo, passato amata padaṁ || 114 ||” – Dhammapadaṁ ibid, p.49.

xviii “Yo ca vassasataṁ jīve, apassaṁ dhammamuttamaṁ |

Ekāhaṁ jīvitaṁ seyyo, passato dhammamuttamam || 115 || – Dhammapadaṁ ibid, p.49.

xixDhammapada, 381. ‘Q. from Samādhimaraṇa, Dr. Rajjankumar, PV, Varanasi, p. 27.’

xx A. Devendramuni, Jaina Ācāra : Siddhānta Aur Svarūpa, Śrī Tāraka Guru Jaina Granthālaya, Udaipur, Ed. I, 1982, p. 714.

B. Saṁyuttanikāya–III, 120.

xxi A. “Ekaṁ samayaṁ Bhagavā Rājagahe viharati Veluvane Kalandakanivāpe | Tena kho pana samayena āyasamā Vakkali Kumbhakāranivesane viharati ābādhiko dukkhito bālhagilāno |”

Saṁyuttanikāya Pāli, Bhikkhu Jagadīsakassapo, Vol. II, Pāli Publication Board, ‘Bihāra Government’, 1953, 22.87–94, p.340.

B. Saṁyuttanikāya Pāli, Svami Dvarakadas Shastri, Vol. II, Bauddha Bharati, Varanasi, 2000, 22.87, pp.896–902.

xxii “Atha kho āyasaṁ Vakkali acirapakkantesu tesubbhikkhūsu sattham āharesi |”

Ibid, p. 343–344.

xxiii “Atha kho Bhagavā sambahulehi bhikkhūhi saddhiṁ yena Isigilipassaṁ Kālasial- tenupasaṅkami | Addasā kho Bhagavā āyasmantaṁ Vakkaliṁ dūrato mañcake vivattakkhandhaṁ semānaṁ |” – Ibid, p. 343–344.

xxiv “Tena kho pana samayena dhūmāyitattaṁ timirāyitattaṁ gacchatteva Purimaṁ disaṁ, gacchati Pacchimaṁ disaṁ, gacchati Uttaraṁ disaṁ, gacchati dakkhiṇaṁ disaṁ, gacchati Uddhaṁ disaṁ, gacchati Adho disaṁ, gacchati Anudisaṁ |” – Ibid, p. 344.

xxv Atha kho Bhagavā Bhikkhū āmantesi – “Passatha no tumhe, Bhikkhave, etaṁ dhūmā–yitattaṁ timirāyitattaṁ gacchatteva Purimaṁ disaṁ, gacchati Pacchimaṁ disaṁ, gacchati Uttaraṁ disaṁ, gacchati dakkhiṇaṁ disaṁ, gacchati Uddhaṁ disaṁ, gacchati Adho disaṁ, gacchati Anudisaṁ ” ti | “Eso kho, Bhikkhave, Māro pāpimā Vakkalissa Kulaputtassa viññāṇaṁ samanvesati – ‘kattha Vakkalissa Kulaputtassa viññāṇaṁ patiṭṭhitaṁ’ ti ? Appatiṭṭhitenaca, Bhikkhave, viññāṇena Vakkali Kulaputtao parinibbuto” ti | – Ibid, p. 344.

xxvi “Ekaṁ samayaṁ Bhagavā Rājagahe viharati Veluvane Kalandakanivāpe | Tena kho pana samayena āyasamā ca Sāriputto āyasmā ca Mahācundo āyasmā ca Channo Ghijjhakūṭe pabbate viharati | Tena kho pana samayena yena āyasmā Channo ābādhiko hoti dukkhito bālhagilāno | Atha kho āyasmā Sāriputto s-yanhasamayaṁ paṭisallānā vuṭṭhito yenāyasmā Mahācundo tenupasṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā āyasmantaṁ Mahācundaṁ etadvoca – ‘Āyāmāvuso Cunda, yenāyasmā Channo tenupasaṅkamissāma gilānapucchakā‘ ti |”

  • Saṁyuttanikāya Pāli, ibid, Vol. III, 1959, 35.87, p.52.

  • Saṁyuttanikāya Pāli, Svami Dvarikadas Shastri ibid, Vol. III, 2000, 35.87, pp.1184–1189.

xxvii “Atha kho āyasmā ca Sāriputto āyasmā ca Mahācundo yenāyasmā Chnno tenupasaṅkamiṁsu; upasaṅkamitvā paññatte āsane nisīdisu | Nisajja kho āyasmā Sāriputto āyasmantaṁ Channaṁ etadvoca – ‘Kacci te, āvuso Chnna, khamnīyaṁ kacci yāpanīyaṁ, kacci dukkhā vedanā paṭikkamanti no abhikkamanti, paṭikkamosānaṁ paññāyati no abhikkamo’ ti ?”

– Ibid, p. 52–53.

xxviii “Na me, āvuso Sāriputta, khamanīyaṁ na Yāpanīyaṁ, bālhā me dukkhā vedanā abhikkamanti no paṭikkamanti, abhikkamosānaṁ paññāyati no paṭikkamo | . . . . satthuṁ, āvuso Sāriputta, āharissāmi, nāvakaṅkhāmi jīvitaṁ” ti |” – Saṁyuttanikāya Pāli ibid., p.53.

xxix “Evaṁ vutte, āyasmā Mahācundo āyasmantaṁ Channaṁ etadvoca – ‘Tasmātiha, āvuso Channa, idaṁ pi tassa Bhagavato sāsanaṁ niccakappaṁ sādhukaṁ manasi kātabbaṁ – ‘Nissitassa calitaṁ, anissitassa calitaṁ natthi | calite asati pasaddhi hoti | Pasaddhiyā sati nati na hoti | Natiyā asati āgatigati na hoti | Āgatigatiyā asati cutūpapāto na hoti | Cutū–papāte asati nevidh na huraṁ na ubhayamantarena | Esevanti dukkhasā |’ ti.”

Saṁyuttanikāya Pāli ibid., p.55.

xxx Atha kho āyasmā ca Sāripotto āyasmā ca Mahācundo āyasmantaṁ Channaṁ iminā ovādena ovaditvā uṭṭhāyāsanā pakkamiṁsu | Atha kho āyasmā Channo acirapakkantesu tesu āyasmantesu satthaṁ āharesi | ” – Saṁyuttanikāya Pāli ibid., p.55.

xxxi “”Atha kho āyasmā Sāriputto yena bhagava tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā Bhagavantaṁ abhivādetvā ekamantaṁ nisīdi | Ekamantaṁ nisinno kho āyasmā Sāriputto Bhagavantaṁ etadvoca ¤– ‘Āyasmatā, Bhnte, Channena satthaṁ āharitaṁ | Tassa kā gati ko abhisamparāyo’ ti?” – Saṁyuttanikāya Pāli ibid, p.55.

xxxii “Nanu te, Sāriputta, Channena b hikkhunā sammukhā yeva anupavajjatā byākatā“ ti |

Ibid., p.55.

xxxiii “Atthi, Bhante, Puvvavijjanaṅ nāma Vajjigāmo | Tatthāyasmato Channassa mittakulāni, suhajjakulāni upavajjakulānī” ti |” – Saṁyuttanikāya Pāli ibid., p.56.

xxxiv “Honti hete, Sāriputta, Channassa Bhikkhuno mittakulāni suhajjakulāni upvajjakulāni | Na kho panāhaṁ, Sāriputta, etāvatā saupavajjo ti vadāmi | Yo kho, Sāriputta, taṁ ca kāyaṁ nikkhipati aññaṁ ca kāyaṁ upādiyati tamahaṁ saupavajjo ti vadāmi | Taṁ Channassa Bhikkhuno natthi | ‘Anupavajjaṁ Channena Bhikkhunā satthaṁ āharitaṁ’ ti | – evamettaṁ, Sāriputta, dhārehī” ti |” – Saṁyuttanikāya Pāli ibid., p.56.

xxxvSaṁyuktanikāya III, 120. ‘Quoted from Samādhimaraṇa ibid, p. 28.’

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