death with equanimity



(Chapter III, cont.)


3.3112 Intermediate Preparation –

12. Diśā “Directions to the successor”iAs the practice of Sallekhanā can be undertaken by anyone including the Ācārya or the head of a monastic order. When an ordinary monk or a nun decides to undertake this practice the smooth running of the monastic order is not disturbed. However, when an Ācārya decides to undertake such a practice he has to leave his group and migrate to another group to practice Sallekhanā under the supervision of another Ācārya “Niryāpakācārya”. He, therefore, also has to consider the issue of his succession so that the functioning of the monastic order, group, gaṇa or gaccha can go on smoothly. When the outgoing Ācārya hands over the gaccha to his successor he also gives him some directions for the smooth running of the monastic group. This is known as ‘Diśā’.ii Alternatively, when an Ācārya decides to leave his gaṇa for another, he has to consider as to which direction to take. The direction in which he departs after considering the issue of a suitable supervising Ācārya, is diśā.

13. Kṣamaṇā “Begging Pardon”iiiThe aspirant practitioner, including the migrating Ācārya, invites the newly appointed Ācārya and the other members of the monastic group “gaṇa” and begs pardon from them saying that he begs their pardon, bodily, mentally and verbally, for anything like harsh words or bitter talk that might have hurt them during the long time that he lived in the gaṇa. iv Though, this section does not speak of the aspirant practitioner pardoning the new Ācārya and the other members of the gaṇa, it is implied that he, too, would have pardoned them as he sought their pardon. These two go together and one is not effective without the other. Dr Purandar Chougule also confirms this view, in his thesis, when he interprets ‘Kṣamaṇā’ as ‘mutual pardon’.v

14. Aṇuśiṣṭī “Sermon” – Anuśiṣṭī is to deliver the sermon in accordance with the canonical precepts. vi The departing Ācārya gives a lengthy sermon to the newly appointed Ācārya and the other members of the monastic group to convey that they ought to endeavour to remove all flaws of knowledge, vision and conduct. They must avoid the flaws connected with the scriptural study and ensure purity of matter, place, time and volition while teaching or learning scriptures, not to misinterpret the canonical maxims, shun lack of reverence towards scriptural knowledge. The flaws of right–belief such as doubt, desire, revulsion, praising the false–belief, etc must also be guarded against as also those of right–conduct like lack of vigilance and restraint. vii To the newly appointed Ācārya, he emphasises that in order to establish his credentials as the head of the monastic order as well as to keep the order on the right spiritual path he must ensure that they steadfastly adhere to the liberating path of ‘Ratnatraya’.viii They must not oppose the righteous and the believers of right–faith and shun argument as it results in avoidable discord and disturbance and knowing that the human body is perishable they must endeavour towards spiritual progress through restraint and austerities. ix

15. Paragaṇacaryā “Migrating to Other Monastic Group”xThe head of a monastic group aspiring to practice Sallekhanā must migrate to another monastic group for one or more of the following reasons as they tend to disturb the equanimity of the practitioner and hinder his practice xi: –

  1. Ajñākopa “Anger at being flouted” – Once the gaṇa is under another appointed Ācārya, if the orders of the aspirant practitioner “the erstwhile Ācārya” are not carried out, by the members of his own erstwhile group, he may lose equipoise and feel angered.

  2. Kaṭhoravacana “Harsh Words” – If a disciple neglects the ex Acārya’s advice, rendered in his “disciple’s” own interest, it may result in an exchange of harsh words.

  3. Kalaha “Conflict” – There being another head of order in place, there may arise an occasion of conflict when instructions passed by them may be contrary and conflicting. It may cause an unsavoury situation within the group and also disturb the state of equanimity of the practitioner of Sallekhanā.

  4. Duḥkha “Pain” – He may feel pained at observing something against the interest of the group.

  5. Nirbhayatā “Lack of Fear Of Authority” – He may not be feared now as he was earlier “when he was the head” and it may hurt him.

  6. Sneha “Affection” – He may be bound by the affection for some or all members of the group, which may adversely affect his practice.

  7. Karuṇā “Compassion” – He may be moved to compassion by seeing someone of his group in pain, or otherwise he may himself become an object of compassion by the members of his own group.

  8. Asamādhi “Disturbed equanimity” – One or more of these reasons may disturb his equanimity and ultimately result in compromising his very practice of Sallekhanā.

16. Mārgaṇā “Search For A Suitable Supervising Niryāpakācārya”xiiAn Ācārya aspiring to the practice of Sallekahanā has to search for a suitable supervising Ācārya who may guide his practice, in accordance with the procedure laid down in the scriptures, and help him maintain his equanimity when he runs into great physical weakness and his resolve may start wavering. He may have to search far and wide and may have to patiently undertake long peregrinating tours, for a long time extending from a year to even twelve years xiii for this purpose. He may have to go distances that may be anything from five hundred yojana xiv to seven hundred yojana and even more than that.xv In deciding upon the suitability of the supervising Ācārya “Niryāpakācārya”, the aspirant undertakes one night long Bhikṣupratimā “advanced monastic practices” in order to assess his ability to supervise it, he assesses his abilities to supervise scriptural studies and questioning, his ability to search for disposal grounds and his suitability for constant interaction. He also assesses his indifference towards all the mundane matters and substances.xvi

This search is so important that it has been compared to going on a pilgrimage and even if the aspirant dies in the process, it is considered to be better than practising Sallekhanā under an unsuitable Niryāpakācārya.xviiThe importance of the right Niryāpakacārya lies in the fact that when the aspirant practitioner “Kṣapaka” reveals his flaws and faults to him, he treats him with such skill and compassion that he makes his burden light and make him calm and contented.xviii He also tries to enlighten him by reminding him of his own scriptural knowledge by telling him appropriate religious stories in such sweet and pleasant tones that they assure him about the nobility of his practice.xix

17. Susthita “Well–qualified and Well–established” – An Ācārya who is steadfast in his own monastic practices and also capable of motivating others to remain steadfast is said to be Susthita Ācārya or well–qualified and well–established for being a Niryāpakācārya. xx Such a well–established supervising guru – Niryāpakācārya makes the Kṣapaka undertake such liberating practices by preaching him the right scriptural procedures that he “the kṣapaka” benefits from his “Niryāpakācārya’s” benevolencexxi and while doing so he “the Niryāpakācārya” also benefits himself as his own fame spreads in all directions.xxii

In Maraṇakaṇḍikā, Ācārya Amitagati mentions the qualities of a well–qualified and well–established Niryāpakācārya asxxiii

  1. Ācārī – Steadfast in observance of his own five–fold monastic conduct as follows: –

    1. Jñānācāra “Scriptural study”,

    2. Darśanācāra “Unwavering belief in Jina–propounded right–faith”,

    3. Cāritrācāra “Flawless monastic conduct”,

    4. Tapācāra “Regular observance of appropriate austerities”, and

    5. Vīryācāra “unsparing in spiritual endeavour”.

  2. Ādhārī – Well–founded in his scriptural knowledge of text as well as meaning.

  3. Vyavahārī – Practically observing and guiding the practices of his disciples makes him observant enough to guide the end–practice of the kṣapaka also.

  4. Prakāraka – Expertise in rendering service to the kṣapaka at critical moments.

  5. Āyapāyadṛga – Ability to convince the kṣapaka when he is shaken due to the hardships of his practice.

  6. Utpīḍaka – Ability to coerce the kṣapaka to admit his flaws when he feels reluctant to do so.

  7. Sukhakārī – Ability to give solace to the kṣapaka when he needs it, and

  8. Aparistrāvī – Ability to keep the confidence of the kṣapaka and not to reveal the flaws admitted by him to the others.

18. Upasampadā “Request by the Kṣapaka to the Niryāpakācārya for acceptance in his fold”xxivAfter the kṣapaka has been able to decide upon a suitable Niryāpakācārya, he humbly approaches him with a request to accept him as a kṣapaka in his fold and guide his practice of Sallekhanā.xxv He does it with reverence and with folded hands by saying that he wishes to confess, criticise, condemn, repent and atone for all the flaws and faults of monastic conduct that he might have incurred since his day of monastic ordination and thus, having become free of spiritual sting, to practice the external and internal Sallekhanā, by flawless pursuit of right–vision, right–knowledge and right–conduct, until his last.xxvi

19. Parīkṣaṇa “Testing the Kṣapaka” – Testing of the kṣpaka’s ability to leave his monastic group and overcome attachment for it, leave the company of his service–rendering disciples and to control his desire for food is to test his suitability for undertaking the practice of Sallekhanā, by the Ācārya who is approached for becoming the Niryāpakācārya and to accept him as his kṣapaka, is ‘Parīkṣaṇa’ or test in this context.xxvii The approached Niryāpakācārya tests his enthusiasm in the pursuit of the liberating path of ‘Ratnatraya’ as well as his greed for good food like milk and rice etc or the lack of it. This testing is important from the point of view of maintaining the equanimity of the kṣapaka when the practice becomes long, trying and testing.xxviii

20. Pratilekhanā “Investigation” – The Niryāpakācārya then investigates various aspects connected with the successful conclusion of the contemplated practice of Sallekhanā by the kṣapaka. Firstly, he sees, through his knowledge of omens “nimittajñāna”, if the practice is being undertaken under auspicious stars to have a good chance of successful conclusion. xxix Secondly, he thinks of and analyses the prevailing situation in the country, region, town or village where the practice is being contemplated. If he finds that the circumstances are not conducive to peaceful conduct of the practice under which the kṣapaka may remain equanimous, he takes the kṣapaka and his own monastic group to a more conducive place and thereby does well by the kṣapaka and by his own group as well.xxx

21. Āpṛcchā “Asking consent of own monastic group by Niryāpakācārya” – Whenever an Ācārya from another monastic group approaches the Ācārya of any group for his permission to carry out the practice of Sallekhanā under his supervision, the Ācārya so approached asks the consent of the members of his own monastic group whether he should be accepted or not. This consent is very important because though the practice is carried out under the supervision of the Ācārya, it is the entire group that is involved in serving and looking after the kṣapaka and any note of dissent later on may disturb his state of equanimity and defeat the whole purpose of his practice. If he does not so obtain their consent all three – the kṣapaka, the niryāpakācārya and the members of the monastic group may become disturbed and come to regret later.xxxi

22. Pratīkṣaṇā “Wait listing” – When more than one aspirants approach an Ācārya for taking them in his fold for carrying out the end–practice of Sallekhanā, he allows only one or two aspirants to do so at any given time and asks the others to either await their turn or to go to some other group for their practices. This is an important administrative consideration. The more the number of kṣapakas in any group on the saṁstāraka, the more is the strain on the members of the group serving and looking after those kṣapakas. This may, eventually, result in resentment amongst the serving niryāpakas and rendering of poor service to each of the kṣapakas and cause discomfort and consequent lack of equanimity to them at times when it is most needed. Therefore, it is not deemed fit not to allow the third kṣapaka to carryout Sallekhanā under one niryāpakācārya at a time.xxxii

23. Ālocanā “Confession, criticism, condemnation, repentance and expiation of flaws” – Having been permitted by the supervising master “niryāpakācārya” to stay in his monastic group for the practice of Sallekhanā, the aspirant practitioner of the end–practice “kṣapaka” very humbly, pridelessly and dispassionately and without any attachment and aversion proceeds to confess and criticise his conduct–flaws, that he might have incurred since the day of his ordination in the monastic order, in front of the niryāpakācārya with a view to repent for them and to atone for them by receiving whatever expiation he awards.xxxiii

The confessions are of two types – general “sāmānya” and particular “viśeṣa”.xxxiv Under the general confession the kṣapaka states and repents for his major flaws in respect right–belief “samyaktva” and breaking of vows.xxxv Under the particular type of confession, he “kṣapaka” states each flaw and fault, as it occurred, with respect to the related matter, place and time of occurrence and volitional disposition under which it occurred.xxxvi This is quite logical as a mind beset with pride and prejudice is unlikely to tell the truth and it would defeat the very purpose of confession, which is to make the kṣapaka feel light of the burden of flaws that he had been carrying since their committing.

24. Guṇadoṣa “Proper and Improper Ālocanā” – The Ālocanā is considered proper if it is carried out in an environment conducive to confessing everything without hiding anything and improper if it suffers from various flaws of confession.

Jina–temple, Sea–shore, green and flower and fruit–laden tree–groves, the lotus–lake, etc are considered places that induce guilelessness in a person and motivate him to come out with the true confession while deserted places, dried up trees, dried lakes, ruins etc have an opposite effect.xxxvii

The flaws of confession, aimed at attracting lighter expiation, are as follows: –

  1. Anukampitadoṣa “Flaw of confessing after producing compassion in the mind of the niryāpakācārya”– Confessing after trying to please the niryāpakācārya by various means such as by showing reverence, by offering food, water and monastic equipage and hoping that, thus pleased, he would impose lighter penalty for atonement. Such a practice amounts to deceit and it does not result in desired volitional purity.xxxviii

  2. Anumānitadoṣa “Flaw of making the confession after guessing the mood of the niryāpakācārya” – The kṣapaka waits to make his confession until the time that the niryāpakācārya is in a good mood so that he would award lighter expiation. This, too, is māyā “deceit” and a flaw of confession. xxxix

  3. Yadṛṣṭadoṣa “Flaw of confessing only the known flaws and hiding the unnoticed flaws” – The kṣapaka reveals only those of his faults that have been noticed by the others and hides those that are unseen and unknown. This, too, is māyā and a serious flaw of confession. xl

  4. Bādaradoṣa “Confessing the major flaws and hiding the minor ones” – The kṣapaka confesses his major flaws and hopes that his minor flaws would go unnoticed. This, too, is māyā and a major flaw of confession. xli

  5. Sūkṣmadoṣa “Confessing the minor flaws and hiding the major ones” – The kṣapaka confesses his minor flaws and hides his major flaws for fear of a major penalty or that of rejection by the niryāpakācārya. Also, he hopes that his major flaws may go unnoticed. This, too, is māyā “deceit” and amounts to flawed confession.xlii

  6. Channadoṣa “Confessing after enquiring the penalty for a particular flaw” – The kṣapaka enquires about the penalty or expiation that may be awarded for a particular fault and confesses that fault if he finds the contemplated expiation bearable and hides it otherwise. This, too, is deceitful and flawed confession.xliii

  7. Śabdakulitadośa “Confessing in confusion” – The kṣapaka makes a major confession in undertones when there is a lot of noise around and hopes that the unsavoury details of his confession would go unnoticed. This, too, is deceit. xliv

  8. Bahujanadoṣa “Confessing to more than one Ācārya “ – The kṣapaka makes his confession to the learned niryāpakācārya with all ritual and ceremony and on his awarding the expiation in accordance with the scriptural provisos, disbelieves him and goes to another Ācārya in the hope of a lighter expiation. This, too, is improper confession. xlv

  9. Avyaktadoṣa “Flaw of lack of expression” – The ignorant kṣapaka waits to make his confession in front of an equally ignorant niryāpakācārya who hasn’t the scriptural knowledge nor the force of his own uncompromised conduct to decide upon proper expiation. xlvi

  10. Tattsevīdoṣa “Confessing to like–minded Ācārya” – When a lax kṣapaka confesses his flaws in front of an equally lax niryāpakācārya and hopes that he being like minded, would award only a nominal expiation. This, too, is deceitful and flawed confession. xlvii

While confessing the flaws and faults, as mentioned in the last consideration of Ālocanā, the kṣapaka must base his confession, criticism, condemnation and repentance on the merits and demerits of each act of commission or omission. By doing so he starts feeling light as if the heavy load of his faults and flaws has been taken off his head. xlviii This merit based confession is important in view of the fact that even the most learned are apt to hide something when it comes to confessing and thereby they do not attain the volitional purity and remain tormented even after making such a mere ritual confession. xlix

25. Śayyā “Vasati or proper residence” – On acceptance the niryāpakācārya offers proper residence to the kṣapaka where he can reside peacefully and carry out his end–practice of Sallekhanā unhindered. The kṣpaka must reside in a place where the distractions from the sights and sounds of mundane and sensual pleasures do not disturb his state of equanimity and he can stay calmly restrained and meditate peacefully.l From this consideration, the proper places of residence for the kṣapaka must be peaceful houses with sturdy walls and doors or lonely but accessible places like caves, farm–houses, etc. that are away from the hubbub of busy residential and business areas.li Further, it must have three divisions for –

a. Kṣpaka’s residence,

b. Supervising master andserving monks’ residence, and

c. Prayer and congregation hall.

Places close to market places, dancing houses, stables, workshops, launderer’s, bandsmen’s, funeral grounds, highways, stone–craftsmen’s, gardens, florists’ lakes, etc where there is a heavy traffic of people for most parts of day and night are not considered suitable for the kṣapaka’s residence as they distract him and disturb his equanimity.lii

26. Saṁstara “The kṣapaka’s bed” – the bed on which the kṣapaka lies down, sits or meditates is called saṁstara. These could be either earth–bed, rock–bed, wooden plank–bed, or grass–bed. Whatever is the type of bed, for the sake of kṣapaka’s peace and equanimity, it must be laid so as to have his head in the North or the East.liii The reason cited for keeping this direction is that the cardinal direction of East is considered auspicious for all kinds of events while that of North is more so for the eternal presence of Lords Tīrthaṅkaras,liv in the Mahāvideha region of Jambudvīpa, in that direction. Again, the bed must be proportionate to the kṣpaka’s body dimensions and it should be carefully inspected and lightly dusted daily in the morning and the evening. For the peaceful and unhindered conduct of his end–practice of Sallekhanā, the kṣapaka must ascend only such saṁstāraka as is laid down in the scriptures and must remain bodily, verbally and mentally well–restrained.lv

27. Niryāpaka “The Supervising Ācārya and assisting monks”– The Supervising monk or master and the assisting monks who ensure peaceful and successful conduct of the practice of Sallekhanā by the kṣapaka are known as niryāpakācārya and niryāpaka respectively.lvi The qualities that set apart the masters and monks, suitable for this role, from the others are – faithfulness, stability in the path of the faith, detachment from the mundane, sin–fearing, patience, knowledge of the art and sequence of renunciation, reliability, dependability and wisdom at large.lvii And rightly so, if the supervising master and assisting monks are not endowed with these desirable qualities and a spirit to serve, how can they be expected to ensure successful conclusion of this most critical practice by the kṣapaka.

Ideally, a total of forty–eight assisting monks “niryāpakas” are required to attend to one kṣapaka. They are organised in twelve groups of four each and are assigned specific tasks as under: –

    1. Physical Assistance – The first group assists the kṣapaka physically in turning in the bed, sitting, standing, walking about “caṅkramaṇa” massaging his limbs or whole body “āmarśaṇa or parimarśaṇa”.lviii

    2. Telling Religious Tales – the second group is assigned the duty of telling religious stories “dharmakathā” to the kṣapaka, which is very important from the point of view of keeping him in the right frame of mind and in keeping up his morale when the going gets tough. Out of the four kinds of religious stories – 1. Ākṣepiṇī, 2. Vikṣepiṇī, 3. Saṁveginī and 4. Nirveginī. the first third and the fourth kinds are considered suitable for narration to the kṣapaka while the second is not. lix For the initial part of such stories is full of wrong beliefs, which are ultimately refuted with logic, but if the kṣapaka dies while listening to the earlier part of such stories he may be in a disturbed and deluded state of mind and his chances of a peaceful death may be irrevocably compromised. lx

    3. Collecting Solid Food – Four monks in the third group go about collecting suitable but flawless food for the kṣapaka who is unable to do so himself. The food so collected has to be healthy in the sense that it should not disturb the balance of the three body–elements – wind or gout “vāta”, bile “pitta” and phlegm “kapha”.lxi

    4. Collecting Liquid Food – The fourth group of four assisting monks collect similarly suitable fluids for the kṣapaka.lxii

  1. Food Protection – The fifth group of four monks constantly watch the food brought in for any pollution or misuse by pests and pestilences and that the consuming of the food by the kṣpaka is not watched by the others.lxiii

  2. Maintenance Of Premises And Equipage And Disposal Of Waste – The sixth group of four niryāpakas is assigned to regularly maintain, by careful inspection and cleaning and dusting, the place, the bed and the monastic equipage of the kṣapaka daily in the morning and evening. They also dispose of any waste such as the kṣapaka’s faeces, urine, phlegm, spittle, vomiting, etc.lxiv

  3. Guarding Kṣapaka’s Residence – The seventh group carefully and vigilantly guards the door of kṣapaka’s residence day and night so that he is not disturbed by undesirable elements and the stalking beasts and pests.lxv

  4. Guarding The Hall of Sermons – The eighth group guards the adjoining hall of sermons used for delivering sermons to the faithful visitors.lxvi

  5. The Night–watch – The four assisting monks of the ninth group remain awake near the kṣapaka to attend to any of his need or to an emergency that may arise. These monks are such that have conquered sleep or that wish to do so.lxvii

  6. Vigilance Group – The tenth group of intelligent monks keep their eyes and ears open for any news or indications that might affect the conduct of the kṣapaka’s practice of Sallekhanā. They analyse such news or signs and report to the niryāpakācārya accordingly.lxviii

  7. ThePreachers – The eleventh group of four learned monks deliver sermons in the form of four kinds of religious stories to the visitors that come from outside in such low tones so as not to cause any disturbance to the kṣapaka.lxix

  8. Watching Over The Preaching – The twelfth group of four learned monks remain present in the hall of sermons while the sermons are delivered so that they may take on any awkward questions asked by the miscreants.lxx

28. Prakāśana “Exhibition of last meal” – To exhibit the last meal in front of the kṣapaka is called ‘prakāśana’. lxxi The aspirant practitioner may not be able to give up all kinds of food at the same time as by doing so he may still have some yearning left for the food, which may not augur well for his end–practice. He is, therefore, presented good food in different vessels and the last meal is presented to him when he is satisfied and says solxxii after appreciating the fact that he is already on the death–bed and what use is the food for him. lxxiii He may also taste some items of food before he is finally satisfied and decides to give up all food for life. He should be allowed to do so, if he so desires.

29. Hāni “Gradual reduction of food” – If the kṣapaka is not swayed away from the desire for food even after showing the flaws of such temptation and desire for a practitioner aspiring to the end–practice of Sallekhanā, the supervising monk – niryāpakācārya weans him away from three kinds of food – aśana “the food that can be swallowed without chewing”, khādiṁ “the food that can be swallowed only after chewing” and swādiṁ “the taste improvers that also have the medicinal properties of restoring the balance of the three body–elements – gout, bile and phlegm”, one by one, by making him overcome his attachment and liking for foodlxxiv and, finally, prepares him to sustain on the liquid food only.

30. Pratyākhyāna “Renunciation of food” – When the kṣapaka overcomes desire for three types of solid foods and is ready for renouncing them, the niryāpaka–ācārya announces the fact to the religious order and gives him the vow to take only the liquid food until his death, lxxv which, too, he leaves at the end.lxxvi There are six types of liquid foodslxxvii – 1. Hot water “Uṣṇodaka Sauvīraka”, 2. Tamarind juice “Bahula”, 3. Thick liquid food “Levaḍā”, 4. Thin liquid food “Alevaḍā”, 5. Soup with grains in it “Siktha” and 6. Soup without grains in it “Asiktha” – and considering the bodily health, need and the capacity of the kṣapaka, the supervising master “niryāpakācārya” regulates his intake accordingly. It is to be appreciated that everyone does not have the same capacity for enduring hunger and may be disturbed by prolonged pangs of hunger. Giving the vow of complete abstinence from food to an aspirant who is not mentally and bodily ready to give it up is killing him and taking such a vow by an aspirant who is not himself bodily and mentally ready for it is committing suicide and the niryāpakācārya must guard against both these eventualities. lxxviii

The taking of liquid food is important from the health point of view as well, as the kṣapaka’s bowels must be cleared of stool before he can settle down with his end–practice. Unless this is achieved the kṣapaka may be disturbed by stomach aches and may not be able to achieve the peace of mind necessary for his practice. lxxix It must be remembered that Sallekhanā is not only the practice of ‘Voluntary Death’ but the practice of ‘Voluntary Peaceful Death’. The ruling clause, here, is ‘peaceful death’ and it should not be lost sight of.

According to Jaina cosmology and geography, the Earth is a part of the middle universe in which the continent of Asia is referred to as Jambudv¯pa and, in it, in the north of the Bharataks<etra ¢the Indian subcontinent£ is situated another region called Maha-videhaks<etra where the Lords T¯rthan]karas have an eternal presence.

i Ibid, p. 106.

ii “Sallekhanāṁ kartumudyataḥ yadi ācāryap bhavet tataḥ tena tasyāmapi avasthāyāṁ cintanīyaṁ gaṇasya hitaṁ || Ātmanaḥ āyuḥsthitiṁ vicārya sarvagaṇaṁ bālācāryaṁ c vyāhṛtya . . . gacchānupālanārtha vicārya ātmanau guṇaiḥ samānaṁ bhikṣuṁ tataḥ tasmin gaṇatyāgaṁ alpayā kathayā karoti dhīraḥ | Anye tu vadati kathayati || – Ibid, p. 106.

iii “Khamāvaṇā kṣamāgrahaṇaṁ |” – Ibid, p. 106.

iv “Āmanteūṇa gaṇiṁ gacchammi ya taṁ gaṇiṁ ṭhavedūṇa |

Tiviheṇa khamāvedi hu sa bālauḍḍhāulaṁ gacchaṁ ||

Jaṁ dīhakālasaṁvāsadāe mamakāran,eharāgeṇa |

Kaḍugapharusaṁ ca bhaṇiyā tamahaṁ savvaṁ khamāvemi ||” – Ibid, verses 278–79.

v Sallekhanā : A Philosophical Study, Thesis by Dr. Purandar Caugule, Shivaji Univerity, Kolhapur, 2001, p. 104.

vi “Aṇusiṭṭhi sūtrānusāreṇa śāsanaṁ |” – Ibid, p. 106.

vii “Vajjehi cayaṇakappaṁ sagaparapakkhe tahā virodhaṁ ca |

Vādaṁ asamāhikaraṁ visaggibhūde kasāe ya ||” – Ibid, verse 287.

viii “Darśane caraṇe jñāne śrutasāreṣu ya striṣu |

Nidhātuṁ gaṇamātam-naṁ śakto`saugaditao gaṇī ||” – Maraṇakaṇḍikā, verse 294.

ix “Kuṇaḥ apamādamāvāsaesu sañjamatavodhaṇesu |

ṇissāre māṇusse dullahabohiṁ viyāṇittā |” – Bhagavatī Ārādhana, verse 298.

x “Paragaṇe anyasmingaṇe cariyā pravṛttiḥ |” – Ibid, p. 106.

xi “Sagaṇe aṇākovo pharusaṁ kalahaparidāvaṇādī ya |

ṇibbhayasiṇehakāluṇiyajhāṇaviggho asamādhī ||” – Ibid, verse 387.

xii Ibid, p. 106.

xiii “Ekkaṁ vā do ya tiṇṇi ya bārasavarisāṇI vā aparidanto |

ṇjjāvayamaṇṇṇādaṁ gavesadi samādhikāmo du ||” – Ibid, verse 404.

xiv 1 Yojana equals 4 Kosa and 1 Kosa equals two miles. So, 1 Yojana equals eight miles or 13 Km. approx.

xv “PañcacchasattasadāṇI joyaṇāṇaṁ tado ya ahiyāṇi |

ṇjjāvayamaṇṇṇādaṁ gavesadi samādhikāmo du ||” – Ibid, verse 403.

xvi “Gacchejja egarādiyapaḍimā ajjhayaṇapucchaṇākusalo |

Thaṇḍllo sambhogiya appaḍibaddho ya savvattha || – Ibid, verse 405.

xvii “Prasthito yadi tīrthāya mriyate`vāntare tadā |

Astyevārādhako yasmād bhāvanā bhavanāśinī || – Sāgāra Dharmāmṛta ibid, 8.31.

xviii “Svadoṣaprakaṭanānmāya tyaktā bhavatyeva tata eva mānanirāso mārdavaṁ | Śrīraparityāgāhitabuddhitayā lāghavaṁ kṛtārtho`smīti tuṣṭirbhavati ||”

Bhagavatī Ārādhanā, Verse 411 ‘comm.’.

xix “ṇiddhaṁ madhuraṁ gambhīraṁ maṇappasādakaraṁ savaṇakantaṁ |

Dei kahaṁ ṇivvaggo sadīsamaṇṇāharaṇaheuṁ ||” – Ibid, verse 504.

xx “Susthitaḥ paropakaraṇe svaprayojane ca samyakaḥ sthitaḥ susthitaḥ ācāryaḥ |

Ibid, p. 106.

xxi “Taha sañjamaguṇabharidaṁ parissahummīhiṁ khumidamāiddhaṁ |

ṇijjavao dhāredi hu mahurehiṁ hidovdesehiṁ ||” – Ibid, verse 506.

xxii “Iya ṇivvavao khavayassa hoī ṇijjāvao sadāyario |

Hoī ya kittī padhidā edehiṁ guṇehiṁ juttassa || – Ibid, verse 508.

xxiii “Ācārī sūrirādhārī vyavahārī parkārakaḥ |

ĀyāpāyadṛgutpīḍI sukhakāryaparistravaḥ ||” – Maraṇakaṇḍikā, verse 433.

xxiv “Upasampayā ācāryasya ḍhaukanaṁ | – Bhagavatī Ārādhanā, p. 106.

xxv “Evaṁ parimaggittā ṇijjavayaguṇehiṁ ca juttamāyariyaṁ |

Uvasampajjai vijjācaraṇasamaggo tago sāhū ||” – Ibid, verse 510.

xxvi “Pavvajjādī savvaṁ kādūṇāloyaṇaṁ\ suparisuddhaṁ |

Daṁsaṇaṇāṇacaritte ṇissallo vihariduṁ icche ||” – Ibid, verse 513.

xxvii Ibid, p. 106.

xxviii “To tassa uttamaṭṭhe karaṇucchāhaṁ paṇicchadi vidaṇhū |

Khi-rodaṇadvvuggahaduguñchaṇāe samādhīe ||” – Ibid, verse 517.

xxix “. . . tasys ārādhanāyā avikṣepam[ parīkṣate | Kaḥ? Sa sūriniryāpakaḥ, pramādarahitaḥ | Kena? Devatopadeśena, nimittena vā iyamekā parīkṣā || – Ibid, verse 518, ‘comm.’

xxx “Rajjaṁ khettaṁ adhivadigaṇamappāṇaṁ ca paḍilihittāṇaṁ ca |

Guṇ,asādhano paḍicchadi appaḍilehāe bahudosā ||” – Ibid, verse 519.

xxxi “Paḍicarie āpucchiya tehiṁ ṇsiṭṭhaṁ paḍicchade khavayaṁ |

Tesimaṇāpucchāe asamādhi hojja tiṇhaṁ pi ||” – Ibid, verse, 520.

xxxii “Tadio ṇāṇuṇṇādo jajamāṇassa hu havejja vāghādo |

Paḍidesu dosu tīsu ya samādhikaraṇāṇI yāyanti ||” – Ibid, verse, 522.

xxxiii “Hatvā kaṣāyān indriyāṇi ca hatvā gāravaṁ hatvā ṛddhirasasātabhedātrivikalpaṁ | Paścāt mṛditarāgadveṣaḥ ālocanākhyāṁ śuddhiṁ ||” – Ibid, verse 526 ‘comm.’

xxxiv “Dviprakāraivālocanā bhavati | sāmānyana viśeṣeṇa ca ||” – Ibid, verse 535 ‘comm.’

xxxv “Sāmānyena kathayati – bahavo aparādhā yasya mithyātvaṁ vratabhaṅgo vā ||

Ibid, verse 536 ‘comm.’

xxxvi “Amugaṁmi ido kāle dese amugattha amugabhāveṇa |

Jaṁ jaha ṇisevidaṁ taṁ jeṇa ya saha savvamāloce ||” – Ibid, verse 534.

xxxvii Ibid, verses 557–560.

xxxviii “Sūriṁ bhakten apānena pradānenopakariṇā |

Vinayenānukampya svaṁ doṣaṁ vadati kaścana ||

Ālocitaṁ mayā sarvaṁ bhaviṣyatyeṣa me guṇaṁ |

Kariṣyati mantavyaṁ pūrvamālocan-malaḥ ||” – Maraṇakaṇḍikā ibid, verses 591–92.

xl “Paraiḥ sūcayate dṛṣṭamadṛṣṭaṁ yā nigṛhati |

mahāduḥkhaphalā tena māyavallo praropyate ||” – Maraṇakaṇḍikā ibid, verse 602.

xli “Sthūlaṁ vratāticāraṁ yaḥ sūkṣaṁ pracchādya jalpti |

Puruto gaṇanāthasya so`rhadvākya bahirbhavaḥ ||” – Maraṇakaṇḍikā ibid, verse 605.

xlii Bhagavatī Ārādhanā, verses 582–83.

xliii “Ādye vrate dvitiye vā doṣah> sampadyate yadi |

Sūreµ kasyāpi kathyasva viśuddhyāti tadā kathaṁ? ||

Ityanyavyājataśchannaṁ pṛcchayate cetsavaśuddhaye |

Tadānīṁ jāyate doṣaḥ ṣṣṭhaḥ saṁsāravardhakaḥ ||”

Maraṇakaṇḍikā ibid, verses 612–13.

xliv “Pakṣādyaticāraśuddhikāleṣu bahujanaśabdasaṅkaṭe | Yathecchayā doṣānātmīyānkathayati || Yadyevamavaktaṁ śrāvayandoṣānkathayati svagurubhyaḥ saptamālocanādoṣaḥ ||”

Bhagavatī Ārādhanā, verses 592–93 ‘com.’

xlv “Bhūribhaktibharanamraḥ sūripādāmbujadvayaṁ |

praṇamya bhās,ate kaścid doṣaṁ sarvavidhanataḥ ||

Tasya sūtrārthadakṣeṇa ratnatritayaśālinā |

Vyavahāravidā dattaṁ prāyaścittaṁ yathocitaṁ ||

Aśraddhāya vacastasya sa yathā pṛcchate paraṁ |

Aṣṭamaḥ kathito doṣstadālocana gocaraḥ ||”

Maraṇakaṇḍikā ibid, verses 621, 622 and 624.

xlvi Bhagavatī Ārādhanā, verses 600–02.

xlvii “Pārśvasthaḥ pārśvasthamanugataḥ duṣkṛtyaṁ parikathayati | Eṣo`pi mamasadṛśaḥ sarveṣvapi vrateṣu doṣasañcayodyataḥ ||” – Bhagavatī Ārādhanā, verse 603 ‘comm.’

xlviii “Kadapāvo vi maṇusso āloyaṇaṇindao gurusayāse |

hodi acireṇa lahuo uruhiya bhārovva bhāravaho ||” – Ibid, verse 615.

xlix “Subahussudā vi santā je mūḍhā sīlasañjamaguṇesu |

ṇa uventi bhāvasuddhiṁ te dukkhaṇilehaṇā honti ||” – Ibid, verse 616.

l “Pañcindiyappayāro maṇasaṅkhobhakaraṇo jahiṁ ṇatthi |

Ciṭṭhadi tahiṁ tigutto jjhāṇeṇa suhappavatteṇa ||” – Ibid, verse 634.

li “Ghaṇakuḍd,e sakavāḍe gāmabahiṁ bālavuḍḍhagaṇajogge |

Ujjhān,aghare, girikandare guhāe va suṇṇahare ||” – Ibid, verse 637.

lii “Gandhavvaṇt,ṭajaṭṭassacakkajantaggikammapharuse ya |

ṇattiyarajayā pāḍhiyaḍombaṇḍrāyamagge ya ||” – Ibid, verse, 632.

liii “Puḍavīsilāmao vā phalayamao taṇamao ya santhāro |

Hodi samādhiṇimittaṁ uttarasira aha va puvvasiro ||” – Ibid, verse 639.

liv Prācī digbhyudayikeṣu kāryeṣu praśastā | Athavottarā dik svayaṁprabhādyuttara–diggtatīrthaṅkarabhaktyuddeśena || – Ibid, verse 639 ‘com.’

lv “Jutto pamāṇaraiyo ubhayakālapaḍilehaṇāsuddho |

Vidhivihido santhāro ārohavvo tigutteṇa ||” – Ibid, verse 644.

lvi “ṇijjāvagā niryāpakāḥ āradhakasya samādhisahāyāḥ ||” – Ibid, p. 107.

lvii “Piyadhammā daḍhadhammā saṁviggā vajjabhīruṇo dhīrā |

Chandaṇhū paccaiyā paccakkhāṇammi ya vidaṇhū ||” – Ibid, verse 646.

lviii “Kṣpakasya śrīraikadeśsya sparśanaṁ āmarśanaṁ, samastaśrīrasya hastena sparśanaṁ parimarśanaṁ | Caṅkramaṇamitasto gamanaṁ śayanaṁ | Niṣadyāsthānmityeteṣu udvartane pārśvāpārśvāntarasaṅcaraṇe | hastapādādiprasaraṇe ākuñcana mityādiṣu ca ||”

Ibid, verse 648 ‘comm.’

lix “Ākṣepiṇī, Vikṣepiṇī, saṁveganī, Nirveganī ceti catastraḥ kathāḥ | . . . iti Ākṣepiṇī, saṁveganī, Nirveganī ca kathā kṣpakasya śrotuṁ, ākhyātuṁ ca yogyāḥ | Vikṣepiṇī tu kathā na yogyā iti sūtrārthḥ ||” – Ibid, verse 654 ‘comm.’

lx Maraṇakaṇḍikā ibid, p. 204.

lxi “Tasyā nayanti catvāro yogayāmāhāramaśramāḥ |

Nirmānā labdhisampannā stadiṣṭaṁ gataduṣaṇaṁ ||” – Ibid, verse 691.

lxii “Pānaṁ nayanti catvāro dravyaṁ tadupakalpitaṁ |

Apramattāh> samādhānamicchantasya viśramāḥ ||” – Ibid, verse 692.

lxiii “Tairānītaṁ bhavataṁ pānaṁ vā catvarāro rakṣanti pramādarahitāḥ trasā yathā na praviśanti, yathā vāpare na paśyanti ||” – Ibid, verse 663 ‘comm.’

lxiv “Purīṣabhṛtikaṁ malaṁ sarvaṁ kṣapakasya catvāraḥ | Pratiṣṭhāpayanti pratilikhanti ca | Apāstamankālavelāyoḥ | Vasatimupakaraṇaṁ saṁstaraṁ ca ||” – Ibid, 664 ‘comm.’

lxv “Kṣapakasya gṛhadvāraṁ pālayanti yatnena catvāraḥ | asamyatān śikṣakāṁśca niṣeddadhuṁ apalāyante ||” – Ibid, 665 ‘com.’

lxvi “. . . catvāraḥ samavaśaraṇadvāraṁ yatnena pālayanti || – Ibid.

lxvii “JItanidrāḥ nidrājayalipsavaḥ ratrau jāgaraṁ kurvanti || – Ibid, 666 ‘com.’

lxviii “. . . tatrs kṣpakasakāśe catvāraḥ parīkṣāṁ kurvanti | Kṣetre svādhyauṣite deśasya kṣema– vārtā ||” – Ibid, 666 ‘com.’

lxix “Bahiḥ kṣapakāvāsāt yavat dūrasthitānāṁ śabdo na śruyate tatra sthitvā catvāraḥ paryāyeṇa caturvidhāḥ kathāḥ pūrvavyāvarṇitāḥ ¤||” – Ibid, 667 ‘comm.’

lxx “Payāsaṇā caramāhāraprakāśanaṁ ||” – Ibid, p. 107


lxxii “Tamhā tivihaṁ vosirihiditti ukkassayāṇI davvāṇI |

Sosittā saṁviraliya carimāhāraṁ payāsejja ||” – Ibid, verse 689.

lxxiii “Kaścid dṛṣṭvā tadetena tīraṁ prāptasya kiṁ mama |

Iti vairāgyamāpannaḥ saṁvegamavagāhate ||” – Maraṇakaṇḍikā ibid, verse 721.

lxxiv “Aṇusajjamāṇae puṇa samādhikāmassa savvamuvahariya |

Ekkekkaṁ hāyanto ṭhavedi porāṇamāhāre ||” – Bhagavatī Ārādhanā, verse 697.

lxxv “Jāvajjīvaṁ savvāhāraṁ tivihaṁ vosarihiditti |

N,ijjavao āyario saṅghassa ṇivedaṇaṁ kujjā ||” – Ibid, verse 703.

lxxvi “Samādhiścittaikārayai tadartha kartavyaḥ pānakasya vikalpaḥ | Paścāt pānakamapi tyaktavyaṁ yathākāle nitarāṁ śaktihānikāle ||” – Ibid, verse 607 ‘comm.’

lxxvii “Svacchaṁ ekaṁ pānakaṁ uṣṇodakaṁ sauvīrakaṁ | Tintiṇīkāphalarasaprabhṛtikaṁ ca anyadvahalaṁ | – Ibid, verse 699 ‘comm.’

lxxviii Sallekhanā : A Philosophical Study ibid, p. 147.

lxxix Ibid, p. 148.

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