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death with equanimity

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(Chapter III, cont.)

3.3 – 3.3111

3.3 Three types of Sallekhanā–Samādhimaraṇa –

Although discreet voluntary death or embracing death with equanimity of mind when the life becomes a spiritually counterproductive burden has been mentioned in most ancient Jaina scriptures such as Ācārāṅga, Sthānāṅga, Samavāyāṅga, Vyākhyāprajñapti “Bhagavatīsūtra”, Uttarādhyayanasūtra, Bhagavatī Ārādhanā, etc, all of them have not mentioned them under their presently current nomenclature – Bhaktapratyākhyānamaraṇa, Iṅginīmaraṇa and Prāyopagamana or Pādapopagamana–maraṇa. It is the Samavāyāṅga i of the Śvetambara tradition and Bhagavatī Ārādhanā ii of the Digambara Yāpanīya tradition that have mentioned them as such. Gommaṭasāra iii also mentions them as three types of discreet deaths.

3.31 Bhaktapratyākhyānamaraṇa –

Bhakta means food and pratyākhyāna means renouncing. Hence Bhaktapratyākhyāna means renouncing food. and death sought by renouncing food for life or by accepting fast unto death is Bhaktapratyākhyāna–maraṇa. According to the Vijayodayā commentary on the Bhagavatī Ārādhanā, Bhaktapratyākhyāna is nothing but therenunciation of three types of food, from the day of ordination onwards up to the last day before taking the end–practice vow under the supervising guru “Niryāpakācārya”, for the sake of following the liberating path of right–vision, right–knowledge and right–conduct after criticising own flaws and atoning for them as per the directions of the guru.iv

Bhagavatī Ārādhanā divides the practice of Bhaktapratyākhyāna–maraṇa in two subtypes – Savicāra and Avicāra.vSavicāra means well–considered. Hence the well–considered Voluntary Peaceful Death, by renouncing food, undertaken after taking into consideration various parameters like the age, health, imminence of death “as guessed by interpreting various death–signs or Riṣtas”, etc by a person who is healthy, not very old and not under imminent death is said to be Savicāra Bhaktapratyākhyāna–maraṇa.vi On the contrary, when Voluntary Peaceful Death, by renouncing food, is embraced in an emergent situation for various reasons, when there is no time for prolonged delibearation, it is called AvicāraBhaktapratyākhyāna–maraṇa.vii

3.311 Savicāra Bhaktapratyākhyāna–maraṇa –

As has been explained earlier, it is the ‘well–considered and deliberate embracing of Voluntary Peaceful Death’ by the aspirant practitioner “kṣapaka”. Forty considerations of eligibility, gender and appearance, education, humility, equanimity, etc for the adoption of Savicāra Bhaktapratyākhyāna–maraṇa have been mentioned in Bhagavatī Ārādhanā.viii These can be grouped under three heads – ‘Preliminary Preparation’, ‘Intermediate Preparation’ and ‘Final Preparation and practice’ as follows: –

3.3111 Preliminary Preparation –

1. Arihā “Eligibility”ixThe conditions that make a personeligible for accepting this vow “of Savicāra Bhaktapratyākhyāna–maraṇa” are –

a. Extreme old–age that hinders the monastic practices,

b. Suffering from incurable disease or terminal illness,x

c. Afflicted by calamities wrought by gods, humans or sub–humans.

d. Inability to hear and walk due to weakness or disease.xi

It clearly lays down that those who are able to observe their monasticism properly ought not to undertake this practice even if prompted by others.xii

2. Liṅga “Gender And Appearance”xiiiAspirants of both genders – masculine and feminine – can undertake this practice but those of masculine gender who wish to do so have to adopt the renunciational “naked – as born” appearance. xivHowever, those well–known lay followers who are ashamed of nakedness in public and whose families and relatives do not approve of nakedness should not be instead upon to adopt the naked appearance publicly.For such persons the exceptional clothed appearance is considered appropriate. xvVasunandi Śrāvakācāra clearly recommends retention of clothing by the lay followers and says that those lay aspirants who renounce all encumbrance except a cloth and practise this end–practice in their own homes or in the Jina–temple after atoning for their flaws and giving up three types of foods “Aśana, Khādya and Svādya” and sustaining themselves only on fluids are said to practise the fourth educational vow of Sallekhanā.xvi

In the case of feminine aspirants such as the nuns, too, may retain a single cloth to cover their nakedness and are required to adopt the renunciational appearance at the very end of their practice when the death becomes absolutely imminent. The others adopt the exceptional one. Even the female householder aspirants may adopt the renunciational appearance if they and their families are willing and the place where they undertake the practice is considered appropriate for the purpose. However, the aspirants from affluent, prestigious and reputed families are not required to adopt nakedness publicly.xvii For them even the reduced clothing may be considered as renunciational appearance.

3. Śikṣā “Education” – In the present context śikṣā means scriptural study that gives an aspirant a proper understanding of the right–faith in all its implications and, thereby, a freedom from doubt as to the desirability and result of adopting this extreme end–practice. It is one of the important considerations because it dispels ignorance “Jñānāvaraṇīya karma” and its absence may disturb the equanimity of the aspirant due to the pain and hardship that presents itself during the end–practice.xviii

4. Vinaya “Rectitude” – Vinaya is rectitude or propriety of conduct in all respects. xix Eight parameters of rectitude in respect of the canonical knowledge and self–study arexx

  1. Kāla “appropriate time for various monastic duties”xxi,

  2. Vinaya “humility and showing visible respect and reverence towards the canonical learning and the learned”xxii,

  3. Upadhāna “determination to complete an assignment even to the extent of undertaking some penance or renunciation until it is completed”xxiii,

  4. Bahumāna “showing much respect and reverence towards the canonical knowledge. Study undertaken with reverence fructifies sooner than that carried out otherwise”xxiv,

  5. Aninhavatva “lack of hereticism – to express views contrary to the right–view propounded by the omniscient Lords and to deny the endowment of the teacher preceptor is hereticism”xxv,

  6. VyañjanaŚhuddhi “uncorrupted reading or reciting of the scriptural text”xxvi,

  7. Arthaśuddhi “Uncorrupted understanding, interpretation and propagation of the meaning of the canonical texts, which is, generally, in the form of cryptic maxims and aphorisms”xxvii, and

  8. Tadubhayaśuddhi “purity of both – in the reading and recitation of the text and interpretation and exposition of the meaning”xxviii.

5. Samādhi “Equanimity” – Samādhi is to preserve the equanimity of mind and to concentrate it on the scriptural teachings and spiritual well beingxxix, for a wavering and doubtful mind cannot preserve the monastic purity and persevere to attain the desired goal.xxx

6. Aniyat vihāra “Unpredecided peregrinations”xxxiThe monk desirous of preserving his monastic purity of conduct must peregrinate from place to place in an unpredicted manner. For, those who stay in one place, develop attachment for the place and the people there.Unpredicted peregrinations results in purity of vision, stability, purity of disposition, increased monastic efficiency and knowledge of various regions.xxxii

7. Pariṇāma “self–appraisal”xxxiiiPariṇāma means self–appraisal and criticism of own duties and actions by the aspirant practitioner himself. When he thinks that his life has been spent in thinking about the welfare of the others while he could pay little attention to his own spiritual weal, it will, therefore, be appropriate if towards the end of his life he thinks of his own spiritual weal and concentrates on the contemplated end–practice.xxxiv

8. Upādhi–tyāga “Renouncing encumbrance”xxxvUpādhi means possession and attachment thereto. The aspirant practitioner of end–practice renounces all physical possessions except the essential monastic equipage like the Picchi and Kamaṇḍalu, etc. but gives up attachment towards all – living and non–living –objects. He does so with his body, mind and speech. That is, he neither bodily uses any objects other than those mentioned nor thinks about them and does not talk about them either.xxxvi

9. Śreṇi “Ladder or Stair”xxxviiLiterally, ‘Śreṇi’ means a ladder or a stair that is used for ascending to floors above. Metaphorically, however, it means ascendance – to higher stages of spiritual development “Guṇasthāna” and in that sense it is also referred to as ‘Guṇaśreṇi’. It is obvious that the former is the material or physical ladder “Dravyasīdi” while the latter is the volitional ladder “Bhāvasīdi” that ought to be ascended by any spiritual aspirant.xxxviii

10. Bhavanā “Desirable Contemplation or Volitional Disposition” – the desirable volitionaldisposition developed by constant scriptural study, contemplation and practice of restrained monastic conduct is termed as Bhāvanā.xxxix Constant practice makes a person habituated to monastic rigours and he is able to take the increased hardships faced by him during the period of end–practice in his stride. The sporadic practitioner may not be able to do so and may suffer from lack of mental equanimity when faced with hardships.xl This is achieved by the contemplation of twelve spiritually desirable and auspicious reflections and by avoiding five types of undesirable and inauspicious reflections. A brief description of these reflections is as under: –

A. Twelve Auspicious Reflections –

  1. Reflecting On The Transient Nature Of Existence “Anitya Bhāvanā” – The aspirant practitioner of Samādhimaraṇa constantly thinks of the transient nature of existence in which everything is temporary. It is there this moment and not there the next. He thinks of the changes of time, of seasons, of childhood into youth, of youth into old age and life into death. He thinks that life, youth, beauty, etc are all purely temporary and transient and it is no use getting attached to anything at all. This develops a temperament of detachment in him and he gains the equanimity of mind so essential for spiritual emancipation and liberation.

  2. Reflecting On The Helplessness Of Everyone “Aśaraṇa Bhāvanā” – The aspirant practitioner of Samādhimaraṇa constantly thinks of the helplessness of every one how–so–ever high and mighty in front of the inevitable death and the inevitability of karmic retribution of one’s actions. He thinks of the fact that neither the family and friends, nor all the wealth accumulated over long years can save him from either. This gives him the essential humility that helps him in maintaining his peace of mind.

  3. Reflecting On The Miserable nature Of The Worldly Existence “Saṁsāra Bhāvanā” – The aspirant practitioner of Samādhimaraṇa constantly thinks of the miserable nature of the worldly existence, which is beset with the pains of birth, decay, disease and death. He thinks of the seemingly pleasurable experiences that result in immensely painful diseases and that the practice of voluntary peaceful death affords him an opportunity to end the cycle of worldly transmigration and escape from this misery.

  4. Reflecting On The Loneliness Of Existence “Ekatva Bhāvanā” – The aspirant practitioner of Samādhimaraṇa constantly thinks that everyone is born alone, dies alone and experiences the inevitable retribution of this karma alone.Neither anyone can help him nor share his lot when it comes to suffering. This reflection makes him realise that if he wishes to escape from this miserable worldly existence, he must endeavour to do so alone. His resolve to steadfastly adhere to the practice of voluntary peaceful death is strengthened by such reflection.

  5. Reflecting On The Separateness Of Own Existence “Anyatva Bhāvanā” – The aspirant practitioner of Samādhimaraṇa constantly thinks thatall worldly beings – kith and kin, family and friends and things – objects of pleasure and pain that seem so attractive and repulsive are other than his own being. So much so that even his own body is separate from his Self.This reflection helps him in overcoming his attachment and aversion for all things and beings.

  6. Reflecting On The Uncleanliness Of Own Body “Aśuci Bhāvanā” – The aspirant practitioner of Samādhimaraṇa constantly thinks about the unclean and repulsive nature of the body that is so abominable just under the skin. It is a veritable house of blood and gore, urine and faeces, semen and marrow and all that one would avoid touching as lon as one can. It is so unclean that repulsive and foul smelling excretions like sweat, spittle, phlegm, sputum, urine, semen etc keep coming out from all its pores and perforations. This reflection helps him in overcoming attachment for his own body and making his mind off from the bodily and sensual pleasures that may disturb his equanimity of mind.

  7. Reflecting On The Means Of Karmic Influx “Āsrava Bhāvanā” – To think and reflect on the reasons by which the karma–matter is attracted towards and enters the soul–field is Āsrava Bhāvanā. Such reasons are false–vision, lack of restraint, passionate disposition, attachment and aversion, jealousy, mental, vocal and physical activities, etc, which contaminate the psyche and invite karma–matter to cme and associate with the soul. These thoughts and actions can be pious as well as impious and both must be controlled as, in the ultimate analysis, both are karma bonding. The vigilant aspirant constantly reflects on these reasons and guards against them.

  8. Reflecting On Means Of Karmic Stoppage “Saṁvara Bhāvana” – The aspirant practitioner of Samādhimaraṇa constantly thinks about the means of stopping the ways of karmic influx or Saṁvara, which can be achieved through restrained conduct or Saṁyama at the mental “controlling passions”, vocal “through restrained and beneficial speech” and physical “through sense–control” levels. The means of controlling passions are – anger through forgiveness, pride through humility, deceit through simplicity and straightforwardness and greed through contentment.

  9. Reflecting On The Means Of Karmic Separation “Nirjarā Bhāvanā” – Once the karmic influx is stopped by adopting the means of stoppage, the soul can achieve increasing purity by the process of separating the earlier bonded karma–matter. Only means of achieving this separation is by undertaking various external and internal penances and practising various austerities. The aspirant constantly contemplates various penances and practices them according to his extreme capacity. These result in gradual spiritual purity, progressive emancipation and ultimate liberation when the karmic encumbrance is completely abd irresidually shed.

  10. Reflecting On The Form And Function Of The Universe “Loka Bhāvanā” – To reflect on various components of the universe such as the heavens in the upper universe, earth in the middle universe and the hellish grounds in the nether universe; or the six substances – Sentient matter “Jīva”, Insentient matter “Ajīva” comprising the concrete matter “Pudgala” and the abstract matter in the form of the medium of motion “Dhramāstikāya”, the medium of rest “Adharmāstikāya”, the space “Ākāśāstikāya” and the time “Kāla”. This contemplation of the universe and universal matter makes the aspirant realise his insignificance and gives him necessary humility to tread the path of liberation.

  11. Reflecting On The Form And Nature Of The True Faith “Dharma Bhāvanā” – The ingredients of true and liberating faith are non–violence, restraint and penance. The aspirant practitioner constantly contemplates about such a liberating faith and keeps his thought on these three ingredients only. This contemplation frees him from the clutches of attachment and aversion and selfishness and mundane affection. When he thinks of the ten–way faith in the form of noble forgiveness, noble softness, noble simplicity, etc, his psyche is established in the pure stratum and the soul is well on the way to the ultimate destination of spiritual liberation.

  12. Reflecting On The Rare Nature Of Enlightenment “Bodhidurlabha Bhāvanā” – Bodhi has been defined as the dawn of right–vision and right–knowledge. This is the rarest of the rare accomplishment that come quite high on the scale of spiritual gains. First rarity is the human birth. Even a human birth is no guarantee of the endowment of human and humane nature, which is considered to be a rarer achievement. On gaining the human birth and a human and humane nature, too, the opportunity of exposure to the right scriptural knowledge is still rarer and having gained the scriptural knowledge, too, to have faith in it is rarer still. Thus, bodhi or enlightenment is very rare. The rarest of the rare is to translate the scriptural precepts into practice through right¤endeavour. The aspirant practitioner constantly contemplates this aspect of rarity and wastes no time in spiritually unproductive pursuits.

B. Alternatively, five auspicious reflections are –

  1. Tapabhāvanā “Repeatedly thinking about and practising various austerities and external and internal penances”,

  2. Śruta–bahāvanā “Repeatedly engaging oneself in the study of scriptures and meditating on their contents”,

  3. Sattvabhāvanā “Maintaining of equanimity in the face of afflictions caused by gods, humans or beasts”,

  4. Ekatva–bhāvanā “Contemplation of unitary and lonely nature of existence” and

  5. Dhṛti–bhāvanā “contemplation of the desirable quality of patience, tolerance and forbearance”.xli

C. Five Inauspicious Reflections Are –

  1. Kāndarpī bah-vana or disturbed thoughts arising out of loss of equipoise revealed by sensuality, ribaldry and vulgarity,

  2. Kilviṣī bhāvanā or habitual deceitfulness, accusing and falsifying others including the Prophets and the preceptors,

  3. Ābhiyogī bhāvanā or performing miracles and practising black magic and witchcraft,

  4. Āsurī bhāvana or demonic thoughts of tormenting others and

  5. Saṁmohī–bhāvanā or deluding thoughts.xlii

11. Saṁlekhanā “Weakening of Body and Passions” – External and internal saṁlekhanā is achieved by undertaking various types of external and internal penance.xliii It weakens the body but controls attachment and aversion and passions and strengthens one’s resolve to renounce the world and undertake the end–practice of Samādhimaraṇa. xliv

iSamavāyāṅgasūtra, 17.21.

ii Bhagavatī Ārādhanā, verse 28.

iii Gommaṭsāra ‘Karmakāṇḍa’, verse 59.

iv “Teṣvanyatamena tyaktaṁ vidhinā kāyakaṣāyasallekhanāpuraḥsaraṁ pravrajyātaḥprabhṛti niryāpakagurusamāśrayaṇa divasamantyaṁ kṛtvā madhye pravṛtān jñānadarśancāritrāṇāṁ aticārānālocya tadbhimataprāyaścittanusāriṇaḥ Dravyabhāvasallekhanāmupagatasya trividhāhārapratyākhyānādikrameṇa ratnatray-rādhanaṁ Bhaktapratyākhyānaṁ ||”

Bhagavatī Ārādhanā, p. 471.

v “Duvihaṁ tu Bhattapaccakkhāṇaṁ savicāramadha avicāraṁ |

Savicāramaṇāgāḍhe maraṇe saparakkamassa have ||” – Ibid, verse 64.

vi Ibid, verse 64.

vii “Tattha avicārabhattapaiṇṇā maraṇammi hoī agāḍho |

Aparakkammassa muṇiṇo kālammi asamputtammi || – Ibid, 2005.

viii “Savicārabhattapaccakkhāṇassiṇamo uvakkamo hoī |

Tattha ya suttapadāiṁ cattālaṁ honti ṇeyāiṁ ||

Arihe liṅge sikkhā viṇaya samādhi ya aṇiyadavihāre |

Pariṇāmovadhijahaṇā sidī ye taha bhāvaṇāo ya ||

Sallehaṇā disā khāmaṇā ya aṇusiṭ<ṭ<hī paragṇe cariyā |

Maggaṇa suṭṭhiya uvasampayā ya paḍichā ya paḍilehā ||

Āpucchā ya paḍicchaṇamegassāloyaṇā ya guṇdosā |

Sejjā santhāro vi ya ṇijjavagapayāsaṇā hāṇī ||

Pacckkhāṇaṁ khamaṇaṁ khamaṇaṁ aṇusaṭṭhisāraṇākavace |

Samadājjhāṇe lessā phalaṁ vijahaṇā va yeṇāiṁ ||” – Ibid, verses 65–69.

ix Arhaḥ yogyaḥ | – Ibid, p. 105.

x “Vāhivva duppasajjhā jarā ya sāmaṇṇajoggahāṇikarī |

Uvasaggā vā deviyamaṇussatericchiyā jassa || “ – Ibid, verse 70.

xi “Cakkhuṁ dubbalaṁ jassa hojja sodaṁ va dubbalaṁ jassa |

Jhaṅghābalaparihīṇo jo ṇa samattho vihariduṁ vā ||” – Ibid, verse 72.

xii “Ussarai jassa ciramavi suheṇa sāmaṇṇamaṇadicāraṁ vā |

ṇijjhāvayā ya sulahā dubbhikkhabhayaṁ ca jadi ṇatthi ||

Tassa ṇa kappadi Bhattapaiṇṇaṁ aṇuvadiṭṭhe bhaye purado |

So maraṇaṁ pacchinto hodi hu sāmaṇṇaṇivviṇṇo ||” – Ibid, verses 74, 75.

xiii “Liṅgaṁ cinhaṁ karan,aṁ iti |” – Ibid, p. 105.

xiv “Ussaggiyaliṅgakadassa liṅgamussaggiyaṁ tayaṁ ceva |

Avavādiyaliṅgassa vi pasatthamuvasaggiyaṁ liṅgaṁ ||” – Ibid, verse 76.

xv “Āvasadhe vā appāugge jo vā mahaḍḍhio hirimaṁ |

Micchajaṇe sajaṇe vā tassa hojja avavādiyaṁ liṅgaṁ ||” – Ibid, verse 78.

xvi “Dhariūṇa Vatthamettaṁ pariggahaṁ chaṇḍiūṇa avasesaṁ |

Sagihe Jiṇālae vā tivihāhārassa vosaraṇaṁ ||

Jaṁ gurusayāsammi sammamāloiūṇa tiviheṇa |

Sallekhaṇaṁ cautthaṁ suttee sikkhāvayaṁ bhaṇiyaṁ ||”

Vasunandi Śrāvakācāra, verses 271–72.

xvii “Itthī vi ya jaṁ liṅgadiṭṭhaṁ ussaggiyaṁ va idaraṁ vā |

Taṁ tattha hodi hu liṅgaṁ parittamuvadhi karentīe ||” – Bhagavatī Ārādhanā,, verse 80.

xviii “Jñānāvaraṇādīnāṁ ajñānāderbhāvamlasya ca vināśanāt kaluṣaharaṁ |” – Ibid, p. 131.

xix “Vinayaḥ maryādā | –Ibid, p. 105.

xx “Kāle viṇaye uvadhāṇe bahumāṇe taheva aṇiṇhavaṇe |

Vañjaṇa–attha–tadubhaye viṇao ṇāṇammi aṭṭhaviho ||” – Ibid, p. 112.

xxi “Parivartanīyatvena nirdiṣṭaṁ kālaṁ . . . |” – Ibid, p. 143.

xxii “Śrutaśrutadharabhaktiriti yāvat . . . |” – Ibid.

xxiii “Uvahāṇe avagrahaḥ | Yāvadidamanuyogadvāraṁ niṣṭhāmupaiti tāvadidaṁ mayā na bhoktavyaṁ |” – Ibid, p. 144.

xxiv “Bahumāṇe sanmānaṁ | Śucaiḥ kṛtāñjalipuṭasya anākṣiptmanasaḥ sādaraṁ– adhyayanaṁ | – Ibid, p. 131.

xxv “Aṇiṇhavaṇe aninhavaśca ninhavopalāpaḥ | Kasyacitsakāśe śrutamadhītyānyo gururityabhidhānamapalāpaḥ |” – Ibid.

xxvi “. . . . śabdaśrutā viparītapāṭhe |” – Ibid, p. 145.

xxvii “Vyañjanśddhistadarthanirupan,āyā avaiparītyaṁ arthaśuddhiḥ |” – Ibid.

xxviii “Tadubhayaśuddhirnāma tasya vyañjanasya arthasya ca śuddhiḥ |” – Ibid.

xxix “Samādhānaṁ manasaḥ ekatākaran,aṁ śubhopayoga śuddhe vā ||” – Ibid, p. 106.

xxx “Cālaṇigayaṁ va udayaṁ sāmaṇṇaṁ galai cṇihudamaṇassa |

Kāyeṇa ya vāyāe jadi vi jadhuttaṁ caradi bhikkhū ||” – Ibid, verse 135.

xxxi “Aniyatkṣetravāsaḥ aniyatvihāraḥ ||” – Ibid, p. 106.

xxxii “daṁsaṇasodhī ṭhidikaraṇabhāvaṇā ādisayattakusalattaṁ |

Khettaparimaggaṇāvi ya aṇiyadavāse guṇā honti ||” – Ibid, verse 144.

xxxiii “Svena kartavyasya kāryasyālocanamiha pariṇāma |” – Ibid, p. 106.

xxxiv “Aṇupālido ya dīho pariyāo v-yaṇāya me diṇṇā |

ṇippādidā ya sissā seyaṁ khalu appaṇo kāduṁ ¤||” – Ibid, verse 156.

xxxv “Upādhiḥ parigrahaḥ tasya jahaṇā tyāgaḥ |” – ibid, p. 106.

xxxvi “Sañjamasādhaṇamettaṁ uvadhiṁ mottūṇa sesayaṁ uvadhiṁ |

Pajahadi visuddhalesso sadhū muttiṁ gavesanto ||” – Ibid, verse, 164.

xxxvii “Sidī ya śritiḥ śreṇiḥ sopānamiti yāvat |” – Ibid, p. 106.

xxxviii “jā uvari–uvari guṇapaḍivattī sā bhāvado sidī hodi |

Davvasidī ṇisseṇī sovāṇaṁ āruhantassa ||

Sallehaṇaṁ kara\ento savvaṁ suhasīlayaṁ payahidūṇa |

Bhāvasidīmārūhitā viharejja sarīraṇivvaṇṇo ||” – Ibid, verses 173, 74.

xxxix “Bah-vanābhyāsaḥ tatra asatkṛtpravṛttiḥ |” – Ibid, p. 106.

xl “Jadan,āe jogga paribhāvidassa Jin,avayaṇmaṇugadamaṇassa |

Sadilovaṁ kaduṁ je ṇa cayanti parsahā tāhe || – Ibid, verses 197.

xli “Tavabhāvaṇā ya sudasttabhān,egattabhāvaṇā ceva |

Dhidibalavibhāvaṇāviya asaṅkiliṭṭhāvi pañcavihā ||” – Ibid, verse 189.

xlii “Kāndarpī kailviṣī prājñairābiyoggyāsurī sadā |

Sammohī pañcamī heyā saṅkliṣṭā bhāvanā dhruvaṁ ||” – Amitagati, Maraṇakaṇḍikā, 162.

xliii “Sallehaṇā ya duvihā abbhantariyā ya bāhirā ceva |

Abbhantarā kasāyesu bāhirā hodi hu sarīre ||” – Bhagavatī Ārādhana, verse 208.

xliv Evaṁ kadapariyammo sabbhantarabāhirammi sallihaṇe |

Saṁsāramokkhabuddhī savvuvarillaṁ tavaṁ kuṇadi ||” – Ibid, verse 272.

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