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death with equanimity

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(Chapter II, cont.)

2.797 – 2.8

2.797 Ārādhanāpatākā Prakīrṇaka By An Unknown Ancient Ācāryai

This Prakīrṇaka, the second most voluminous of those devoted to the subject of Samādhimaraṇa runs in 932 verses. First seven of its verses are devoted to benediction by way of bowing to Bhagvān Mahāvīraii and to listing the thirty–two sections “dvāras” in which the subject has been covered.iii They are as follows: –

  1. Sallekhanā Dvāra – This section describes external sallekhanā as weakening of the body and the internal sallekhanā as the weakening of the passions and then mentions the periods of twelve years, twelve months and twelve fortnights as the longest, the medium and the shortest durations of sallekhanā. It dwells at some length on the subjects of harms that may come about by succumbing to passions.iv

  2. Parīkṣā Dvāra – In this section the ways of testing of the aspirant practitioner by the guru are described.v

  3. Niryāmaka Dvāra – This section describes the duties of the supervising and attending monks. It says that a minimum of two monks are required to attend and supervise the practice of Sallekhanā by an aspirant practitioner and categorically denies attendance or supervision by one monk only by citing various flaws of such a practice. vi

  4. Yogyatā Dvāra – In this section the eligibility conditions of an aspirant practitioner have been given. It says that only those that are keenly desirous of attaining spiritual emancipation, that are repelled by the sensual pleasures, whose delusion has been dispelled, who have overcome the affection of the near and dear ones as well as the attachment towards own body only can successfully see this practice to its conclusion and they are the only ones eligible to undertake this practice.vii

  5. Agītārtha Dvāra – This section firmly and unequivocally forbids and denies practising of this vow under the instructions of a supervising monk or guru “Niryāmaka” who is not learned in the scriptural knowledge and not familiar with all the provisos, procedures and implications of this practice.viii

  6. Asaṁvijña Dvāra – In this section the flaws of undertaking this practice in the presence of a guru who is himself not fully detached have been mentioned.ix

  7. Nirjaraṇā Dvāra – This section brings out in vivid details the process of karmic separation through the means of scriptural study, body–detached posture, service to other spiritual aspirants and fasting.x

  8. Sthāna Dvāra – In this section the author prohibits undertaking of this practice at a place that may distract the aspirant practitioner from his practice.xi

  9. Vasati Dvāra – This section describes the suitable place of residence for the aspirant practitioner.xii

  10. Saṁstāraka Dvāra – In this section the Saṁstāraka or the bed on which the aspirant practitioner lies down during his practice has been described.xiii

  11. Dravyadāyanā Dvāra – This section lays down the exception of giving treated water or even some food at the time when the death is imminent and the aspirant practitioner cannot bear the intense thirst or hunger and there is a danger of his losing his equanimity of mind. This is where the supervising or attending monks have to exercise their discretion.xiv

  12. Samādhipāna–virecak Dvāra – In this section the author prescribes that initially the aspirant practitioner must be given some sweet drinks and soft laxatives so as to reduce the possibilities of his suffering gastric disorders during the long fasting practice.xv

  13. Gaṇanisarga Dvāra – This section lays down that if the aspirant practitioner happens to be the head of the monastic order in a group, there is a possibility that he might be treated with undue consideration, either way. Therefore, he must migrate to another group and carry out this practice under the instructions of another Ācārya and under the supervision of monks from the other monastic group.xvi

  14. Caityavandana Dvāra – In this section there is a detailed description of the aspirant practitioner’s request to the guru, his permission with instructions to proceed with the practice by venerating the venerable paragons etc. The acceptance of fast unto death by the lay followers is also described in detail.xvii

  15. Ālocanā Dvāra – In this section the ways of confessing, criticising and condemning the flaws by the aspirant practitioner in the presence of the supervising guru “Niryāmaka” who is learned in scriptures and the harms of doing so in the presence of the one who is not so learned have been described. The procedures to be adopted for such confession and criticism for flaws in relation to right–knowledge “Jñānācāra”, right–vision “Darśanācāra”, right–conduct “Cāritrācāra”, penance “Tapā–cāra” and spiritual endeavour “Vīryācāra” are also given. The procedure for such confession, criticism and condemnation by the lay aspirants and prohibition of false criticism are also given.xviii

  16. Vratoccāra Dvāra – This section describes as to how the guru establishes an aspirant ascetic practitioner as also an aspirant lay practitioner in their great and minor vows respectively.xix

  17. Catuḥśaraṇa Dvāra – In this section there is a description of the aspirant practitioner accepting the four–way shelter of the Arihanta, Siddha, Sādhu and the faith propounded by the omniscient Lords Jina.xx

  18. Duṣkṛt–garhā Dvāra – This section describes, in detail, the ways of variously criticising and condemning the past violent misdeeds committed by the aspirant practitioner.xxi

  19. Sukṛtānumodanā Dvāra – In this section the author lays down as to how the aspirant practitioner must appreciate the good deeds such as flawless practice of right–conduct, penance, service rendered to the deserving, etc done by various saints and lay followers.xxii

  20. Jīvakṣamaṇā Dvāra – This section prescribes that the aspirant practitioner must forgive and seek forgiveness of all the living beings of the six categories and four species for all known and unknown hurts caused to them in various births.xxiii

  21. Svajana Kṣāmaṇā Dvāra – In this section it is laid down that the aspirant practitioner forgives and seeks forgiveness from his near and dear ones.xxiv

  22. Saṅgha Kṣāmaṇā Dvāra – This section prescribes that the aspirant practitioner forgives and seeks forgiveness from all the members of the religious order.xxv

  23. Jinavarādi Kṣāmaṇā Dvāra – In this section it is laid down that the aspirant practitioner seeks forgiveness from his spiritual superiors – Jinavara, etc of the past present and future that ever lived, are living and would be living in the three regions – Bharata, Airāvata and Videha.xxvi

  24. Āśātanā Pratikramaṇa Dvāra – In this section it is laid down that the aspirant practitioner retracts from all the transgressions in respect of his monastic or lay followers’ conduct and those in respect of canonical knowledge, committed by him.xxvii

  25. Kāyotsarga Dvāra – This section prescribes that the aspirant practitioner undertakes body–detachment posture in order to ensure unhindered practice of his vow of Bhaktaparijñā.xxviii

  26. Śakrastava Dvāra – In this sections it is laid down that the aspirant practitioner recites the Śakrastava – Namotthuṇaṁ stotra in order to cultivate devotion for the Arihantas, etc.xxix

  27. Pāpasthāna–vyutsarga Dvāra – In this section it is laid down that the aspirant practitioner renounces all the eighteen types of sinful activities. The subject has been elucidated by giving examples for each type.xxx

  28. AnaśanaDvāra – At this stage the aspirant practitioner accepts the vow of fast unto death, by renouncing three or four kinds of food, either with certain exceptions or without.xxxi

  29. Anusaṣṭi Dvāra – Having vowed to fast unto death if the aspirant practitioner faces some difficulties the guru stabilises him by suitable means such as urging him to give up false–faith, adhering to right–faith, scriptural studies, protection of five great vows, reining in pride, sense–control, passion–control, patiently forbearing hardships and tortures, not succumbing to negligence, undertaking external and internal penance, giving up attachment, avoiding to make binding wishes, not entertaining bad thoughts, to avoid five flaws of Sallekhanā, concentrating on twelve kinds of pious contemplation and twenty–five contemplations to safeguard the five great vows.xxxii

  30. Kavaca Dvāra – In this section various ways of providing solace to the suffering aspirant practitioner by treating his ailments, by giving examples of steadfast practitioners, by reminding him about his resolve, by describing the pain and miseries of the births in four species, etc have been described.xxxiii

  31. Navakāra Dvāra – In this section the glory of the Namaskāra Mahā–mantra has been recounted and the aspirant practitioner urged to continuously recite it for gaining sustenance in his practice.xxxiv

  32. Ārādhanā Dvāra – This section mentions the final outcome of flawlessly undertaking this practice. It says that one who achieves this stage of flawless practice of Bhaktaparijñā, certainly liberates and becomes a Siddha.xxxv

The author concludes the treatise on the note that glorious and knowledgeable are those that take the vow of giving up all foods with the testimony of the religious order and that he bows to such glorious practitioners.xxxvi

2.798 Ārādhanāpatākā Prakīrṇaka By Śrī Vīrabhadrācāryaxxxvii

This treatise is the most voluminous amongst the Prakīrṇakas on the subject of ‘Voluntary Peaceful Death’ and contains 989 verses. It is only to be surmised that it covers the subject in all possible details. After bowing to Bhagvāna Mahāvīra by way of benediction and stating the subject of the treatisexxxviii the author proceeds to preface the main subject in which he mentions the five kinds of deaths – Paṇḍita–paṇḍita, Paṇḍita, Bāla–paṇḍita, Bāla and Bāla–bāla maraṇa, different kinds of end–practices such as Avicāra and Savicāra and describes the Savicāra Bhaktapraijñā–maraṇa “Voluntary Death by fasting unto death undertaken with due and deliberate consideration and thought” in detail. It also mentions the spiritual benefits to be gained by proper and improper practice of this vow as well as various means of undertaking this practice. xxxix

After the ‘Preface’ the author bows to the god–guardian “Śāsana deva” of canonical knowledgexl and then proceeds to mention the four sections and their sub–sections in which the main subject of Saparikarma Savicāra Bhaktapraijñā–maraṇa is to be covered in this treatise. The four sections are – 1. Parikarmavidhi dvāra, 2. Gaṇasaṅkramaṇa dvāra, 3. Mamatva–vyuccheda dvāra and 4. Samādhilābha dvāra.xli

2.7981 Savicāra Bhaktaparijñā Maraṇa –

  1. Parikarmavidhi Dvāra – This first section, dealing with the procedure for the ‘Voluntary Peaceful Death’, with due and deliberate consideration and thought as well as with no restrictions on receiving services and assistance, by giving up food for life “Saparikarma Savicāra Bhaktaparijñā Maraṇa”, has been covered in eleven sub–sections as follows:xlii

  1. Arhatā Pratidvāra – Eligibility sub–section lays down eligibility–conditions for the aspirant practitioner who wishes to undertake this end–practice.xliii

  2. Liṅga Pratidvāra – Identity sub–section deals with the appearance aspect of the aspirantpractitioner who appears with mouth cover, sweep, body–detached, naked and hair plucked. In general he appears like a traveller on the journey to spiritual emancipation.xliv

  3. Sikṣā Pratidvāra – Teachings sub–section says that the aspirant practitioner remains engrossed in study, repetition and recall of the teachings of the Lords Jina contained in the canonical works and mentions its seven stages – 1. Renunciation in self–interest, 2. Psychic karmic stoppage, 3. Ever fresh desire for spiritual emancipation, 4. Stability, 5. Penance, 6. Contemplation and 7. Feeling of migrant status in this world.xlv

  4. Vinaya Pratidvāra – Humility sub–section describes five types of three–way “by body, mind and speech” vinaya– 1. Jñāna vinaya, 2. Darśan vinaya, 3. Cāritra vinaya, 4. Tapa vinaya and 5. Upacārita vinaya..xlvi

  5. Samādhi Pratidvāra – Equanimity sub–section states the importance of mind–control for the achievement of mental equanimity.xlvii

  6. Aniyat Pratidvāra – Undecided impermanent residence sub–sectionmentions five benefits of such residence – 1. Purity of vision, 2. Stability, 3. Unsurpassed gain of scriptural meaning, 4. Knowledge of the lie of the land.xlviii

  7. Pariṇāma Pratidvāra – Result sub–sectionmentions the result to be obtained by undertaking such a penance. xlix

  8. Tyāga Pratidvāra – Renunciation sub–sectionprescribes that the aspirant practitioner must renounce everything except equipment essential for carrying out monastic duties. l

  9. Śreṇi Pratidvāra – Ascendance sub–section describes the dravya and bhāva śreṇi ārohaṇa “physical and volitional ascendance” by the aspirant practitioner. li

  10. Bhāvanā Pratidvāra – Contemplation sub–section advises the aspirant practitioner to entertain only spiritually beneficial thoughts and shun the others. lii

  11. Saṁlekhanā Pratidvāra – Preparatory penance sub–section carries a detailed description of the external and internal sallekhanā or the weakening of the body and the passions. liii

  1. Gaṇa–saṅkramaṇa Dvāra or Inter monastic group migration sectionThis section, dealing with the migration of the group–head “the Ācārya desirous of undertaking the practice of Bhaktaparijñā maraṇa, to another monastic group, has been covered under the following ten subsectionsliv: –

  1. Diśā Pratidvāra – Direction sub–section prescribes that the group–head or Ācārya, desirous of undertaking the practice of ‘Voluntary Peaceful Death, must migrate to another monastic group on an auspicious day, at an auspicious time in an auspicious direction. lv

  2. Kṣamaṇā Pratidvāra – Forgiveness sub–section lays down that the aspirant practitioner must seek forgiveness from the entire monastic group before migrating to another group. lvi

  3. Anuśiṣṭi Pratidvāra – Sermon sub–section carries various sermons to be delivered to the aspirant practitioner as well as the others in the monastic group. lvii

  4. Paragaṇacaryā Pratidvāra – ‘Practising “Bhaktapratyākhyāna– maraṇa” in another monastic group’ sub–section emphasises the necessity of migrating to another monastic group by citing certain flaws that might compromise the practice of the group–head if he stays in his own group. lviii

  5. Susthita Gaveṣaṇā Pratidvāra – Proper search for a suitable monastic group and a proper supervising Ācārya must be made in order to complete the practice properly. lix

  6. Upasampadā Pratidvāra – Permission by the other group’s Ācārya sub–section mentions as to how the Ācārya of the other group “Niryāmakācārya” grants permission, when the head of the other group desires to undertake the practice of Bhaktaparijñāmaraṇain his group.He has to consider various facilities and availability of supervising and attending monks before he grants such permission. lx

  7. Parīkṣā Pratidvāra – This sub–section lays down norms for supervision and regulation of various aspects of the practice by the migrant aspirant practitioner by the other group’s supervising head of order or Ācārya. lxi

  8. Pratilekhā Pratidvāra – Introspection sub–sectionlays down that for the proper conduct of the practice the aspirant practitioner as well as the supervising monk”s” must constantly reflect upon the propriety aspect of the practice, which may go haywire if not so contemplated. lxii

  9. Āpṛcchanā Pratidvāra – This sub–section says that for the proper and unhindered conduct of the practice of Bhaktaparijñā a request for assisting monks must be made. Without such assistance all three – the practitioner, the supervising monk and the monastic group may come to grief. lxiii

  10. Pratīcchā Pratidvāra – Acceptance of assisting monk sub–section says that for the reasons cited above the aspirant practitioner must accept the services of such assisting “niryāmaka” monks. lxiv

  1. Mamatva Vyuccheda Dvāra or section on giving up of attachment and affection has been treated in the following ten sub–sections:–

  1. Ālocanā Pratidvāra – Confession and criticism sub–section describes in detail the confession and self–criticism, of his flaws, by the aspirant practitioner in front of the learned guru and the monastic group. lxv

  2. Guṇa–doṣa Pratidvāra – This sub–sectiondescribes the benefits of such confession–criticism and the harmful effects of not confessing the flaws properly and truthfully. lxvi

  3. Śayyā Pratidvāra – Shelter sub–section lays down the characteristics of the suitable shelter or accommodation for the aspirant practitioner. lxvii

  4. Saṁstāraka Pratidvāra – Bed sub–section carries the details of the characteristics of the grass–bed, rock–bed, etc to be used by the aspirant practitioner during his end–practice. lxviii

  5. Niryāmaka Pratidvāra – This sub–section describes the characteris–tics of forty–eight supervising monks “Niryāmakas” and says that they must be faith–loving, steadfast, detached, sin–fearing, patient, knowledgeable about the desires of the aspirant practitioners, expert in giving renunciational vows etc. lxix

  6. Darśan Pratidvāra – This sub–sectionlays down that an aspirant practitioner must be shown sumptuous food in order to find out his attitude towards such food.lxx

  7. Hāni Pratidvāra – Harm sub–section lays down that if the aspirant practitioner is found to be attracted towards the sumptuous food shown to him, he must be explained about the futility of succumbing to its lure and the benefits of renouncing it as well as other types of food. lxxi

  8. Pratyākhyāna Pratidvāra – Renunciation sub–section describes various kinds of renunciations in respect of various kinds of foods. lxxii

  9. Kṣāmaṇā Pratidvāra – This sub–sectionlays down that after obtaining the guru’s permission to accept the vow of Bhaktapraijñā practice, the aspirant practitioner must seek forgiveness from the entire religious order comprising monks, nuns, lay male and female followers. lxxiii

  10. Kṣamaṇa Pratidvāra – Forgiving others by the aspirant practitioner is as important as seeking forgiveness from them. This sub–section says that he must forgive all for their known and unknown faults. lxxiv

  1. Samādhilābha Dvāra or section on gaining equanimity has been described in the following eight sub–sections:

  1. Anuśiṣṭi Pratidvāra – In this sub–section the author lays down that the aspirant practitioner “kṣapaka” on the SaṁstārakaSanthārā or the bed on which he carries out his end–practice” must be given regular sermons about the spiritual benefits of his practice. It must include nine types of volitional sallekhanā – 1. Giving up false–faith, 2. Equanimity promoting contemplation, 3. Nobility of devotion, 4. Veneration for the venerable, 5. Pursuit of knowledge, 6. Safeguarding the monastic vows, 7. Overcoming passions, 8. Sense–control and 9. deliberate practice of penance. lxxv

  2. Sāraṇā Pratidvāra – Pain–relief sub–section specifies that when an aspirant practitioner suffers pains that may disturb his pious contemplation and equanimity of mind, he must be given suitable treatment to relieve his pains. lxxvi

  3. Kavaca Pratidvāra – This sub–section, which urges the aspirant practitioner to endure various hardships that may be faced by him during the practice, provides him with psychological armour against disturbing thoughts. lxxvii

  4. Samatā Pratidvāra – Equanimity sub–sectionurges the aspirant practitioner to adopt equanimity of mind even under adverse circumstances. lxxviii

  5. Dhyāna Pratidvāra – Meditation sub–section prescribes shunning of two inauspicious kinds of contemplation – despondent “Ārta” and angered “Raudra”and urges the aspirant practitioner to concentrate on the two auspicious types –pious “Dharma” and white or pure “Śukla” meditation “dhyāna”. lxxix

  6. Leśyā Pratipatti Pratidvāra – This sub–section describes various actions and thought dispositions that result in various auspicious and inauspicious spiritual hues. It recommends only those physical and mental dispositions that obviate the possibility of three inauspicious spiritual hues – black “Kṛṣṇa–leśyā”, blue “Nīla–leśyā” and grey “Kāpota–leśyā” and result in three auspicious ones – yellow “Pīta or Tejo–leśyā”, lotus “Padma–leśyā” and white “Śukla–leśyā”. lxxx

  7. Ārādhānāphal Pratidvāra – Result sub–section describes the result, in the form of spiritual advancement, that can be expectedby undertaking the longest “12 years’”, the medium “12 months’” and the shortest “12 fortnights’” Sallekhanā practice.It also hints at the inauspicious rebirths in hellish and sub–human species by those who are lax in observance of their vows. lxxxi

  8. Vijahāṇa Pratidvāra – This sub–section describes in great detail the psychological frame of mind of the aspirant practitioner when the time of death comes and says that he must remain fearless in the face of death. lxxxii

The part of the treatise on Savicāra Bhaktapraijñā is concluded with the remark that those who observe this practice with due procedure and devotion certainly gain noble rebirths.lxxxiii

2.7982 Avicāra Bhaktaparijñā Maraṇalxxxiv

The author also mentions three types of Avicāra Bhaktapraijñā Maraṇa as – 1. Niruddha Avicāra Bhaktapraijñā Maraṇa in which a monk whose bodily power reduces either due to old–age or disease and he accepts fast unto death in a cave or such like lonely places. This is yet again of two types – a. Prakāśa, which is known to people at large and b. Aprakāśa, which remains unknown. 2. Niruddhatara Avicāra Bhaktapraijñā Maraṇa in which a monks accepts fast unto death when his life expectancy is reduced due to accidents, attacks by wild beasts, unconsciousness, acute diseases such as cholera and other such like reasons and 3. Paramaniruddha Avicāra Bhaktapraijñā Maraṇa in which the monk accepts fast unto death when his speech is compromised due to disturbed wind and he feels that his end is nearby.

2.7983 Iṅginī–maraṇalxxxv

Having described the Bhaktapraijñā–maraṇa thus, the author says that the practice of Iṅginī–maraṇa type of voluntary death is also similar except that the practitioner of this type of end–practice remains confined to a predecided place and does not accept any external help for his bodily needs but looks after them himself. The practitioner is not frightened and deviated from his end–practice in spite of violent and fearsome afflictions afflicted by gods, humans and animals. So much so that he cannot be deviated from his pious contemplation even if all the material particles of his body convert themselves into the most unbearable pain. He generally remains silent and speaks only when addressed by the Ācārya etc and preaches only when requested by human and divine audience.

2.7984 Padopagamana–maraṇalxxxvi

In a very brief description of this type of end–practice the author says that the practitioner remains motionless like a fallen tree without any attachment towards his body and he is not moved by any hardships and the most fearsome afflictions. This is the pinnacle of his end–practice totally devoted to spiritual well–being and results in either gaining a rebirth in Vaimānikalxxxvii heavens or in the attainment of spiritual liberation and the soul’s flight to the eternal abode of the Siddhas.lxxxviii

The treatise concludes by mentioning the fruits of three levels of Sallekhanā with end–practice of fast unto death. The author says that one who practices the longest Sallekhanā progressively culminating in Bhaktapratyākhyāna, Iṅginī and Pādopa–gamana–maraṇa liberates in the same birth. One who practices the medium practice culminating in fast unto death liberates, at the most, in the third rebirth and the one who practices fast unto death with the shortest Sallekhanā liberates at the very latest in the next seven rebirths.lxxxix

Last few verses of the treatise are devoted to the exhortation that one who reads this beautiful exposition, composed by Ācārya Vīrabhadra, on the subject of Samādhi–maraṇa, sets his feet firmly on the path of liberation.xc

2.8 The Result Of Embracing Voluntary Peaceful Death –

All the treatises of the Arddhamāgadhī canonical literature that deal with the subject of Voluntary Peaceful Death are unanimous in holding the view that it being the welcome non–violent form of death in a state of equanimity of mind, is the noblest form of death, which results in spiritual purification and depending upon the purity of the soul achieved it results in a rebirth in higher heavens or spiritual emancipation and final liberation from the mundane existence itself either in the same birth or in a maximum of seven to eight noble rebirths in higher heavens like the Anuttaravimānas.

According to the Ācārāṅga, which covers the subject of Voluntary Peaceful Death in the eight chapter of its first volume entitled ‘Vimokṣa’, meaning renunciation that is essential for karmic stoppage and separation and which results in noble rebirths at the very least and, ultimately, in spiritual emancipation and liberation.xci

Upāsakadaśāṅga mentions that ten lay followers of the religious order of Lord Mahāvīra, led by Ānanda, attained noble rebirths as a result of embracing the voluntary peaceful death by fasting unto death. As a result of his severe penance and death through a month long fast unto death, in a state of equanimity of mind, Ānanda achieved a noble and heavenly rebirth as a god of the life–duration of four Palyopama in the heavenly land situated in the North–East angle of the great heavenly ground – Saudharmāvataṁsaka – of the first Saudharma–kalpa heaven. From there he would be reborn in the Mhāvideha region and on achieving complete and irresidual separation from the karmic bondage he would be liberated from the mundane existence and become a Siddha. The other nine also gained similar destinations.xcii

In Antakṛddśāṅgasūtra, we find the accounts of ninety such aspirant practitioners from the religious orders of the twenty–second Prophet, Lord Ariṣṭanemi, and the last one, Lord Mahāvīra, who culminated their lifelong penances by undertaking Sallekhanā–Samādhimaraṇa, liberated from the worldly cycle of transmigration and attained the ultimate accomplishment of becoming Siddhas.xciii

The Anuttaropapātikadaśāngasūtra describes the lives and practices of thirty–three aspirant practitioners who also culminated their penances with the practice of Sallekhanā–Samādhimaraṇa and gained noblest of rebirths in the ultimate “Anuttaravimāna” heavens from where each of them will take only one rebirth in the human species and liberate. The example of Dhanyakumāra who, at the end of his severe penance embraced voluntary peaceful death by observing one month’s fast unto death in a state of mental equanimity, is illustrative of this point.xciv

Uttarādhyayana is unequivocal in saying that the practice of voluntary “peaceful” death either results in ending all worldly misery or in liberation in a couple of noble rebirths.xcv

Amongst the Prakīrṇakas, Mahāpratyākhyāna mentions the liberation or a rebirth in Vaimānika heavens as the result of this form of end–practice.xcviSaṁstāraka says, “The benefits of ascending the Saṁstāraka in proper psychic state is that the kṣapaka sheds the karmic accumulation of many a birth on the very first day of his accepting the vow of Samādhimaraṇa. The pleasure that the aspirant feels sitting or lying down on the grass bed of Saṁstāraka is rare for the kings and emperors also.xcvii The Phaladvāra of Ārādhanāsāra informs us that any one who undertakes this end–practice with due inner purity is sure to gain the ultimate fruit of spiritual liberation.xcviiiBhaktaparijñā prakīrṇaka concludes on the note that anyone who devotedly and flawlessly practices the vow of Bhaktapraijñā is sure to attain the ultimate goal of spiritual emancipation and eternal bliss of liberation.xcix The Ārādhanā Dvāra of the first of the two Arādhanāpatākās mentions the final outcome of flawlessly undertaking this practice. It says that one who achieves this stage of flawless practice of Bhaktaparijñā, certainly liberates and becomes a Siddha.c The second Arādhanāpatākā concludes by mentioning the fruits of three levels of Sallekhanā with end–practice of fast unto death. It says that one who practices the longest Sallekhanā progressively culminating in Bhaktapratyākhyāna, Iṅginī and Pādopa–gamana–maraṇa liberates in the same birth. One who practices the medium practice culminating in fast unto death liberates, at the most, in the third rebirth and the one who practices fast unto death with the shortest Sallekhanā liberates at the very latest in the next seven rebirths.ci

i Pāīṇāyariyaviraiyā Ārāhaṇāpaḍāyā Paiṇṇayaṁ ‘Paiṇṇayasuttāiṁ Pt. II ibid.’, pp. 1–84.

ii Ibid, verse 1.

iii Ibid, verses 2–7.

iv Ibid, verse 8–24.

v Ibid, verses 25–28.

vi Ibid, verses 29–43.

vii Ibid, verses 44–47.

viii Ibid, verses 48–63.

ix Ibid, verses 64–70.

x Ibid, verses 71–74.

xi Ibid, verses 75–78.

xii Ibid, verses 79–82.

xiii Ibid, verses 83–91.

xiv Ibid, verses 92–99.

xv Ibid, verses 100–102.

xvi Ibid, verses 103–44.

xvii Ibid, verses 145–62.

xviii Ibid, verses 163–218.

xix Ibid, verses 219–33.

xx Ibid, verses 234–71.

xxi Ibid, verses 272–300.

xxii Ibid, verses 301–49.

xxiii Ibid, verses 350–479.

xxiv Ibid, verses 470–78.

xxv Ibid, verses 479–89.

xxvi Ibid, verses 490–502.

xxvii Ibid, verses 503–13.

xxviii Ibid, verses 514–19.

xxix Ibid, verses 520–21.

xxx Ibid, verses 522–39.

xxxi Ibid, verses 540–67.

xxxii Ibid, verses 568–758.

xxxiii Ibid, verses 759–893.

xxxiv Ibid, verses 894–912.

xxxv Ibid, verses 913–25.

xxxvi Ibid, verses 926–32.

xxxvii Sirivīrabhaddāyariyaviraiyā Ārāhaṇāpaḍāyā Paiṇṇayaṁ ‘Paiṇṇayasuttāiṁ Pt. II ibid.’, pp. 85–168.

xxxviii Ibid, verses 1–3.

xxxix Ibid, verses 4–51.

xl Ibid, verse 52.

xli Ibid, verses 53–55.

xlii Ibid verses 56–57.

xliii Ibid verses 58–61.

xliv Ibid verses 62–74.

xlv Ibid verses 75–87.

xlvi Ibid verses 88–94.

xlvii Ibid verses 95–99.

xlviii Ibid verses 100–107.

xlix Ibid verses 108–11.

l Ibid verses 112–16.

li Ibid verses 117–20.

lii Ibid verses 121–33.

liii Ibid verses 134–67.

liv Ibid verses 168–70.

lv Ibid verses 171–72.

lvi Ibid verses 173–75.

lvii Ibid verses 176–230.

lviii Ibid verses 231–42.

lix Ibid verses 243–304.

lx Ibid verses 305–308.

lxi Ibid verse 309.

lxii Ibid verse 310.

lxiii Ibid verse 311.

lxiv Ibid verses 312–14.

lxv Ibid verses 319–43.

lxvi Ibid verses 344–88.

lxvii Ibid verses 389–91.

lxviii Ibid verses 392–96.

lxix Ibid verses 397–414.

lxx Ibid verses 415–16.

lxxi Ibid verses 417–22.

lxxii Ibid verses 423–32.

lxxiii Ibid verses 433–34.

lxxiv Ibid verse 435–37.

lxxv Ibid verses 442–717.

lxxvi Ibid verses 718–26.

lxxvii Ibid verses 727–93.

lxxviii Ibid verses 794–802.

lxxix Ibid verses 803–35.

lxxx Ibid verses 836–45.

lxxxi Ibid verses 846–64.

lxxxii Ibid verses 865–87.

lxxxiii Ibid verses 888–93.

lxxxiv Ibid, verses 894– 902.

lxxxv Ibid, verses 904–21.

lxxxvi Ibid, verses 922–25.

lxxxvii Ibid, verse 932.

lxxxviii Ibid, verses 933–62.

lxxxix Ibid, verses 963–65.

xc Ibid, verses 983–89.

Section – 2.8.

xciĀcārāṅga, ‘Ed.’ Madhukarmuni, ibid, p. 239.

xcii This chapter sec 2.25 and endnotes 125–140.

xciii Ibid, sec 2.26 and endnotes 141–145.

xciv Ibid, sec 2.27 and endnotes 146–153.

xcv Ibid, sec 2.28 and endnote 172.

xcvi Ibid, sec 2.793 and endnote 241.

xcvii Ibid, sec 2.794 and endnote 246.

xcviii Ibid, sec 2.795 and endnote 274.

xcix Ibid, sec 2.796 and endnote 290.

c Ibid, sec 2.797 and endnote 324.

ci Ibid, sec 2.798 and endnote 379.

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