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death with equanimity

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(Chapter I, cont.)

1.225 – 1.226

1.225 Forty–five Āgamas

As mentioned earlier, the White–clad Idol–worshiping tradition recognises forty–five scriptures as āgamas. They are as follows:–

1.2251 Eleven Aṅga Āgamas – as listed earlier,

1.2252 Twelve Upāṅga Āgamas as listed earlier,

1.2253 Six Mūla Sūtrasi

  1. Āvaśyakasūtra,

  2. Daśavaikālikasūtra,

  3. Uttarādhyayanasūtra,

  4. Nandīsūtra,

  5. Anuyogadvārasūtra, and

  6. Piṇḍaniryukti–Oghaniryukti.

1.2254 Six Cheda Sūtrasii

  1. Niśīthasūtra,

  2. Mahāniśīthasūtra,

  3. Vṛhatkalpa,

  4. Vyavahārasūtra,

  5. Daśāśrutaskandha, and

  6. Pañcakalpa.

1.2255 Ten Prakīrṇakasiii

  1. Āturapratyākhyāna,

  2. Bhaktaparijñā,

  3. Tandulavaicārika,

  4. Candravedhyaka,

  5. Devendrastava,

  6. Gani–vidyā,

  7. Mhāpratyākhyāna,

  8. Catuh<śaraṇa,

  9. Vīrastava, and

  10. Saṁstāraka.iv

1.226 The Prakīrṇakas –

Generally, the word ‘Prakīrṇaka’ means ‘a treatise compiled on miscellaneous subjects’. According to Malyagiri, the commentator on the Nandīsūtra, the monks used to compose the Prakīrṇakas based on the sermons of the Tīrthaṅkaras “the Prophets Propounders of the Jaina faith”. “Caurāsīiṁ paiṇṇagasahassāiṁ”, in the Samavāyāṅga– sūtra, points towards eighty–four thousand Prakīrṇakas having been composed by the eighty–four thousand disciples of the first Tīrthaṅkara, Lord Prophet ṛṣabhadeva.v As there were fourteen thousand disciples in the order of the last “twenty–fourth” Tīrthaṅkara, Lord Prophet Vardhamāna Mahāvīra, the number of Prakīrṇakas now should have been a similar number. However, today the number of Prakīrṇakas is not definitely known and presently only ten Prakīrṇakas, mentioned at section 1.255 are recognised amongst the forty–five canonical works.

Though the Mūrtipūjaka Sampradāya of the Śvetāmbara Jaina “Idol worshipping white clad sect of the Jainas” tradition recognises ten Prakīrṇakas as canonical texts. However, according to Muni Puṇyavijayaji, if all the texts known as Prakīrṇakas are collected we get the following twenty–two namesvi :–

  1. Catuḥśaraṇa,

  2. Āturapratyākhyāna,

  3. Bhaktaparijñā,

  4. Saṁstāraka,

  5. Tandulavaicārika,

  6. Candravedhyaka,

  7. Devendrastava,

  8. Gaṇividyā,

  9. Mahāpratyākhyāna,

  10. Vīrastava.

  11. ṛṣibhāṣita,

  12. Ajīvakalpa,

  13. Gacchācāra,

  14. Maraṇasamādhi,

  15. Titthogālī “Tīrthodgālika”,

  16. Ārādhanāpatākā,

  17. Dvīpasāgara–prajñapti,

  18. Jyotiṣakaraṇḍaka,

  19. Aṅgavidyā,

  20. Siddhaprābhṛta,

  21. Sārāvalī, and

  22. Jīvavibhakti.

Although a certain amount of disagreement is noticed as far as the names and the numbers of the Prakīrṇakas obtained from different sources is concerned, we find that the list of twenty–two Prakīrṇakas prepared by and their contents edited by Muni Śrī Puṇyavijayajī is quite authentic.

Again, although the Prakīrṇakas enjoy a place of secondary importance in the scheme of canonical works, if we consider the linguistic ancientness and spirituality of the contents of these works, some of these Prakīrṇakas appear to be of an even more ancient origin than certain canonical texts. The Prakīrṇakas like the ṛṣibhāṣita, etc are even more ancient than the ancient canonical texts like the Uttarādhyayana and Daśavaikālika.vii Hence, their importance does not in any way reduce by their inclusion amongst the miscellaneous treatises, that the Prakīrṇakas are, as such. Again, from this study point of view, the Prakīrṇakas are a rich source of material on Samādhimaraṇa as twelve out of twenty–two of them are exclusively on this subject and cover it most comprehensively.

i Jaina Āgama Sāhitya : Manana Aur Mīmāṁsā, ibid, pp. 30–31.

ii Ibid, pp. 31, 32.

iii The Prakīrṇakas have been dealt with separately. Here only ten Prakīrṇakas that are included amongst the forty–five canonical works by the White–clad idol worshiping sect of Jainas have been listed.

iv Jaina Āgama Sāhitya : Manana Aur Mīmāṁsā, ibid, p. 31.

v Samavāyāṅgasūtra, Ed. Muni Madhukara, Āgama Prakāśana Samiti, Beawar, I Ed., 1982, 84th Samavāya, p. 143.

vi Preface to Paiṇṇayasuttāiṁ Part–I, Muni Puṇyavijayaji, Mahāvīra Jaina Vidyalaya, Mumbai, Ed. I, 1984, p. 18.

vii About the ancientness of ṛṣibhāṣita please see ‘ṛṣibhāṣita : Eka Adhyayana, Dr. Sagarmal Jain, Prākṛta Bhāratī Saṁsthāna, Jaipur.

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