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death with equanimity

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(Chapter I, cont.)

1.2211 – 1.23

1.2211 The Twelfth Aṅga Āgama ‘Diṭṭhivāda “Dṛṣṭivāda”’ –

This Aṅga Sūtra, which is believed to have been lost to time, had five parts. They were –

  1. Parikarma – containing the mathematical procedures and formulae for various calculations. It had five sub–sections, namely –

a” Candra Prajñapti,

b” Sūrya Prajñapti,

c” Jambūdvīpa Prajñapti,

d” Dvīpasāgara Prajñapti, and

e” Vyākhyā Prajñapti.

  1. Sūtra – describing each of the 363 false faiths and then logically refuting each one of them.

  2. Pūrvagata – containing the fourteen Pūrvas.

  3. Anuyoga – containing the descriptions of the lives and practices of sixty–three great personalities or torch–beares “Trisaṣṭi Śalākāpuruṣa” of the Jaina faith.

  4. Cūlikā – containing the supplements to various Pūrvas.

The third part – Pūrvagata comprised the fourteen Pūrvas “Pre–canons. i

1.2112 The Fourteen Pūrvas–

The fourteen Pūrvas are –

  1. Utpāda Pūrva – It described the coming into being “Utpāda”, permanence “Dhrauvya” and destruction “Vyaya” of animate and inanimate matter.

  2. Agrāyaṇīya Pūrva – It contained the descriptions of seven hundred good and bad standpoints “Naya”, six matters “ṣaḍ–dravya”, seven fundamentals “Sapta tattva”, and nine substances “Nava padārtha”.

  3. Vīryānuvāda Pūrva – It described the potentialities of six matters.

  4. Asti–nāstipravāda Pūrva – It explained the existence and the non–existence of the animate and inanimate matter with reference, respectively, of their own quartet “Svacatuṣṭaya” of matter “dravya”, place “kṣetra”, time “kāla” and mode “bhāva” and that “Paracatuṣṭaya” of the others.

  5. Jñānapravāda Pūrva – describing the number, types, subjects and effects of knowledge.

  6. Satyapravāda Pūrva – describing various tendencies of the truth and the untruth.

  7. Ātmapravāda Pūrva – It described the qualities like doership “Kartṛtva”, enjoyership “bhoktṛtva”, etc. of the soul “Jīva” from both, the absolute “Niścaya” and practical “Vyavahāra” standpoints “Naya”.

  8. Karmapravāda Pūrva – it contained the descriptions of the bonding “Bandha”, existence “Sattā”, fruition “Udaya”, premature fruition “Udīraṇā”, etc of karma.

  9. Pratyākhyāna Pūrva – It describes various types of renunciations.

  10. Vidyānuvāda Pūrva – It contained the descriptions of 700 types of petty and 500 types of great learning, procedures for perfecting various incantations for obtaining desired results “Mantra–siddhi Vidhāna”, and eight–fold prognostics “Aṣṭāṅga Nimitta”.

  11. Avandhyaii Pūrva – Describing the auspicious events in the lives of sixty–three great personalities or standard–bearers “Śalākāpuruṣa” of the Jaina faith.

  12. Prāṇāyuiii Pūrva – containing the knowledge of the science of healing and that of incantations “Mantra prayoga” for relieving the spells cast by evil spirits.

  13. Trilokabindusāra Pūrva – containing the descriptions of the three worlds – higher, middle and nether; and the mokṣa “the abode of the liberated souls” as also the actions that lead to mokṣa.

  14. Cūlikā Pūrva – detailing the procedures for attaining various unusual accomplishments as follows –

  1. Jalagatā Cūlikā – the art of walking on water by stabilizing it.

  2. Agnigatā Cūlikā – the art of stabilizing fire, entering it and walking on it.

  3. Sthalagatā Cūlikā – the art of treading the inaccessible lands such as Mt. Meru etc.

  4. Māyāgatā Cūlikā – the art of breaking the magic and evil spells.

  5. Rūpagatā Cūlikā – the art of adopting various forms such as those of lion, goat, elephant, horse, etc. at will.

  6. Ākāśagatā Cūlikā – the art of flying in the sky.

1.222 Aṅgapraviṣṭha And Aṅgabāhya Āgama –

The second classification of the canonical works is in the form of Aṅga included “Aṅgapraviṣṭhaāgamas or Intra Primary canons and Aṅga excluded “Aṅgabāhyaāgamas or Extra Primary Canons. According to the Nandīsūtra this classification is as followsiv:–

Āgama or Śruta

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Aṅgapraviṣṭha Aṅgabāhyav

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Ācārāṅga | |

Sūtrakṛtāṅga Āvaśyaka Āvaśyaka–vyatirikta

Sthānāṅga | |

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Samavāyāṅga Sāmāyika |

Vyākhyāprajñapti Caturviṁśatistava |

Jñātādharmakathāṅga Vandanā |

Upāsakadaśāṅga Pratikramaṇa |

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Antakṛddaśāṅga Kāyotsarga |

Anuttaropapātikadaśāṅga Pratyākhyāna |

Praśnavyākaraṇa |

Vipākasūtra |

Dṛṣṭivāda |

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KālikaUtkālika

Uttarādhyayana Daśavaikālika

Daśāśrutaskandha Kalpikākalpika

Kalpa Culla–Kalpaśruta

Vyavahāra Mahākalpaśruta

Niśītha Aupapātika

Mahāniśītha Rājapraśnīya

ṛṣibhāṣita Jīvābhigama

Jambūdvīpa–prajñapti Prajñāpanā

Dvīpasāgara–prajñapti Mahāprajñāpanā

Candra–prajñapti Pramādāpramāda

Kṣullikāvimānapravibhakti Nandī

Mahallikāvimānapravibhakti Anuyogadvāra

Aṅgacūlikā Devendrastava

Vaggacūlikā Tandulavaicārika

Vivāhacūlikā Candravedhyaka

Aruṇopapāta Sūrya–prajñapti

Varuṇopapāta Pauruṣīmaṇḍala

Garuḍopapāta Maṇḍalapraveśa

Dharanopapāta Vidyācaraṇaviniścaya

Vaiśramaṇopapāta Gaṇividyā

Velandharopapāta Dhyānavibhakti

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Devendropapāta Maraṇavibhakti

Utthānaśruta Ātmaviśodhi

Samutthānaśruta Vītarāgaśruta

Nāgaparijñāpanikā Saṁlekhanāśruta

Nirayāvalikā Vihārakalpa

Kalpikā Caraṇavidhi

Kalpāvataṁsikā Āturapratyākhyāna

Puṣpikā Mahāpratyākhyāna

Puṣpacūlikā

Vṛṣṇidaśā

1.223 The Four Anuyogas –

The third classification of the canonical texts is based on the subjects dealt with therein. All the āgamas were divided into four parts called Anuyogas. They are as undervi:–

  1. Caraṇa–karaṇānuyogavii – This group of Jaina canonical works form ‘Jaina Ethics’ and deal with the rules of monastic and lay followers’ conduct, flaws and atonement thereof. The canonical works included within this anuyoga are – Kālika Śruta “Timely studiable canonical works”, Mahākalpa, Cheda–sūtras, etc. It can be compared to Karmayoga “Actional discipline” of the Vedic tradition.

  2. Dharmakathānuyogaviii – This group contains Jaina legends or works containing religious stories, such as – ṛṣibhāṣita, Uttarādhyayana, etc. are included within this anuyoga. It can be compared to the Bhaktiyoga “Devotional discipline” of the Vedic tradition.

  3. Gaṇtānuyogaix – This group of canonical works is devoted to the study of Jaina cosmology or the Jaina concept of the form and functioning of the universe. The canonical texts such as Sūrya–prajñapti, Candra–prajñapti, Jambudvīpa–prajñapti, etc., which can be studied through mathematical rigour, form the content of this anuyoga. It can be compared to the Rajayoga “Royal Discipline” of the Vedic tradition.

  4. Dravyānuyogax – the canonical works dealing with the Jaina material science, such as Dṛṣṭivāda, etc., are included within this anuyoga. It can be compared to the Jñānayoga “Learning discipline” of the Vedic tradition.

i “Cauddasa puvvā paṇṇattā, taṁ jahā –

Uppāyapuvvamaggeṇiyaṁ, ca taiyaṁ ca Vīriyaṁ puvvaṁ |

Atthinathippavāyaṁ, tatto nāṇappavāyaṁ ca ¤||

Saccappavāyapuvvaṁ, tatto Āyappavāyapuvvaṁ ca |

Kammappavāyapuvvaṁ, Paccakkhāṇaṁ bhave navame ||

Vijjāaṇuppavāyaṁ, Abañjhapāṇāu bārasaṁ puvvaṁ |

Tatto Kiriyavisālaṁ, puvvaṁ taha Bindusāraṁ ca ||

Samavāyāṅga, Samavāya 14.

ii Kalyāṇavāda Pūrva according to the Digambara tradition.

iii Prāṇavāda Pūrva according to the Digambara literature.

iv “Ahavā taṁ samāsao duvihaṁ paṇṇattaṁ, taṁ jahā Aṅgapaviṭṭhaṁ Aṅgabāhiraṁ ca |”

  • Nandīsūtra, Ed. Muni Madhukara, Sūtras 73.

  • Also ibid. Sūtras 79–81.

v The literature of the Digambara tradition, however, mentions only thirteen Aṅgabāhya āgamas – Sāmāyika, Caturviṁśatistava, Vandanā, Pratikramaṇa, Vainayika–kṛtikarma, Daśavaikālika, Uttarādhyayana, Kalpavyavahāra, Kalapākalpa, Mahākalpa, Puṇḍarīka, Mahāpuṇḍarīka, and Aśītikā.

vi Jaina Āgama Sāhitya: Manana Aur Mīmāṁsā, Ibid, p. 16.

vii The Digambara tradition mentions this anuyoga as Caraṇānuyoga and includes Mūlācāra in it.

viii Prathamānuyoga of the Digambara tradition deals with similar subject but contains the life–sketches of the great torch–bearers ‘Śalākāpuruṣa’ of the Jaina faith. It includes Mahāpurāṇa and other purāṇas.

ix Karaṇānuyoga of the Digambara tradition, it includes Triloka–prajñapti, Trilokasāra, etc.

x Digambara tradition also calls it as such and includes Gommaṭasāra, Pravacanasāra, etc. in it.

– Ibid., p.18

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