AN ANALYTICAL STUDY OF UPAMITI – BHAVA – PRAPAÑCA – KATHĀ
In the “City-of-Man’, “The Worldly Soul’ is narrating his tale to “The-True-Doctrine’, Prince “Good-Spirited’, “Rich-Insight’ and “Innocence’. In the birth of Nandivardhana he explained the consequences of “The Sense of Touch’, Anger and Violence, he further continues with his explanation and narrates as follows:
After many intermediate births in hell and other existences, the Worldly Soul is born as Prince Ripudārana to King Naravahana and Queen Vimalamālati in Siddhārtha city. He was accompanied by “Good Fortune’ (Puṇyodaya) and Destiny (Bhavitavyata). His birth was celebrated with great pomp and show. This time his nurse Indiscrimination gave birtth to Pride (Śailarāj), whose father was Aversion. As days went by Ripudārana and Pride became great friends as a result all the activites of the Prince were self-centered and he was egoistic. He did not respect his parents and the generals, but still people respected him and Ripudārana thought that his friend Pride was responsible for this, and he became even more attached to him. Pride energised Ripudārana at all times as his good old friend “Good Fortune’ remained helpless.
In course of time he became friendly with Falsehood (Mṛuṣavāda) (inner friend) who was the son of King Malice and Queen Detestable. His associates were ill-will, reprehension, defame, dispraise and they were all against love, friendship, faith and confidence.
When he was sent to school, Ripudārana, insulted his teacher (Kalācārya) and uttered untruth. As a result he was dismissed from school. When his father enquired about his studies he said that he had completed his education and mastered all the arts and skills. When the teacher was paid his fees he too did not reveal the truth but remained silent. The King instructed the Prince to perfect the skills by practising them at home.
The Prince thanked Falsehood for this achievement and falsehood revealed that Illusion, the daughter of Attachment was his elder sister and the source of inspiration. Influenced by these two friends, the Worldly Soul in the guise of Ripudārana visited prostitutes and at the casinos, gambled day and night. Thus twelve years passed and Ripudārana exhibited his cunningness by spreading the false news that he had become adept in all the skills.
Princess Narasundarī of Śekharpur, the daughter of Narakesarī and Vasundharā had vowed to marry the one who was more skillful than her. When Ripudārana did not pass the test of exhibiting his skills as he had not mastered any, his father felt very sorry when he came to know about the truth from the teacher. The people mocked at him and criticised him for associating with Pride and Falsehood.
But as “Good Fortune’ favoured him sudden change of events led Narashundarī to marry Ripudārana. Both lived happily in their palace which was presented by the King Naravāhana to Ripudārana. His marriage to Narasundarī made him even more proud and arrogant and his friend “Good Fortune’ became weak. One day when Narasundarī expressed her desire to hear from Ripudārana about the various arts and skills, he insulted her and she committed suicide. The Queen too could not bear this and ended her life. When the King came to know about all this, he condemned the crime, scoffed his son and expelled him from his kingdom. All the people critcised him and rebuked him but Ripudārana remained unmoved and thought that when Pride and Falsehood were on his stride, he need not fear anyone.
Once when the King set out for horse-riding in the outskirts of the city he met the learned Ācārya (Vicakṣanācārya). After hearing his discourse on the nature of the worldly-sojourn and the duties of an aspirant, the King enquired about the cause of his renunciation. At that time Ripudārana too participated as an audience to hear the narration.
The learned Adept said that a monk should not indulge in self-praise, disapprobation and description of the pleasures experienced in the past. But when he was forced to reveal the cause of his renunciation, he narrated his story as follows:
LEARNED AND IRRATIONAL
In the city of Earth (Bhūtala) lived King Accumulator (Malasancaya) and his Queen Vision (Tatpakti). Their famous sons were Auspicious (Śubhodaya) and Inauspicious (Aṣubhodaya). Auspicious was married to Beauty (Nijacārutā) and their son was called Learned (Vicakṣana), Inauspicious wed Unworthiness (Svayogyatā) and they had a sone called Irrational (Jaḍa).
Learned was wise, loving, caring, god-fearing, courageous, friendly, humble, charitable and a good and noble human being where as Irrational was blemished by all negative qualities. In course of time Learned married “Wisdom’ (Buddhi) and the son born to them was wise like his father and was christened Excellence and his maternal uncle, Rational (Vimarṣ) who came to stay with them was very fond of Excellence.
One day Learned and Irrational set out wandering in the garden (face) when they met “The Sense of Taste’ and her maid Appetite, Irrational was attracted towards them. They said that they were his old friends and the three ie. Irrational, “The Sense of Taste’ and Appetite became good friends. Irrational served them good food and drinks along with non-vegetarian and alcoholic drinks. His parents too approved of his relation and delighted in his endeavour to please and satisfy “The Sense of Taste’ and Appetite.
On the other hand Learned did not try to please them and informed his parents about “The Sense of Taste’ and “Appetite’. They advised him to investigate their source. So Learned appointed his brother-in-law “Rational’ and his son “Excellence’ to investigate and inform him about the source of “The Sense of Taste’ and “Appetite’ within a year.
The two seasons autumn and winter did not prove to be fruitful as both Rational and Excellence tried to search the source of “The Sense of Taste’ and appetite then they landed in the city of Attachment (Rāgasachit) which was desolate. They found their way to the office of the General False Pride (Mithyābhimana) and spoke to him. At length they came to know that the land was ruled by Attachment, son of King Delusion who had gone on an expedition to conquer the world. He was supported by his ministers-sensual pleasures. Since beginningless-time he had waged a war against contentment. When he heard that some people had conquered the five senses of touch, taste, smell, sight and sound and reached “The City of Bliss’, he became furious and set out to conquer one and all.
When “Rational’ heard this he could guess the source of “The Sense of Taste’- to be one of the generals of King Attachment. Then they reached “The City of Evil’ (Tāmasacit) and met the General, Sorrow (Śoka). He said that their King Aversion too had gone on an expedition to conquer contentment and the two Kings were supported by their ministers and generals and were engaged in a battle against contentment. False Pride guarded the “City of Rajas’ and Sorrow guarded the “The City of Tamas’. When Rational and Excellence got the information that the armies of Attachment and Sensual pleasures was nearby they set on in that direction of the forest of mind (Cittavṛitti).
On the shore of the river they saw Delusion. Attachment and Aversion were surrounded by their armies. Rational meditated and then old Excellence that ““Conscious is the forest, Invigilance is the river whose shore is Sleep, the Passions are the waters, Enjoyment is the island, Perplexity is the canopy, Desire is the altar and Perversity is the throne of King Delusion’’.
To educate Excellence, Rational told a few moral narratives to convey the meaning of the above allegory and then proceeded to introduce the family of Delusion.
The learned Ācārya informed King Naravāhana and Ripudārana and “The Worldly Soul’ narrated the same to the learned audience- the mystery of “The Sense of Taste’ and Falsehood.
When they reached their destination, they saw Delusion surrounded by his family. Rational introduced the family of Delusion to Excellence. He said that Ignorance (Muḍḥata) was the Queen of Delusion and accompanied him everywhere. They are inseparable like sun and its light. Perverse attitude (Mityādarṣana) is the minister of King Delusion who is very powerful and manifests thus-
(1) He inspires people to worship those Gods and Teachers who are unworthy of worship.
(2) Forbids them to worship the worthy omniscients and spiritual adepts.
(3) He popularises the false path ie. path of bondage.
(4) Demerits the path of righteousness.
(5) Causes belief in untruth.
(6) Doubt in truth.
(7) He favours the hypocrites.
(8) Demeans and humiliates the real monks.
(9) He instigates people to aspire all that is inferior and second-rated and
(10) Prevents them from treading on the path of emancipation.
The minister’s wife is none other than Sinister Eye (Kudṛṣṭi) who is responsible in establishing false theories of Gods, philosophies, appearances, rituals, emancipation, purification and conditioning.
Attachment (Rāgakesarī) and Aversion (Dveṣakesarī) are the two sons of Delusion. Attachment was surrounded by his three friends. Attachment of Gospel (Dṛṣṭi Rāga), Kith and Kin (Sneharāga) and Sensual pleasures (Kāma Rāga). His wife is Infatuation (Mu²hatā).
Aversion, the brother of Attachment and his wife Indiscrimination (Avivekitā) were seated near the King Delusion. Lust (Makaradhvaja) who was seated behind the King Delusion, was escorted by his wife sexual passion (Rati) and both had conquered the entire world. Desire for sex with all three genders are the three attendants of Lust. Laughter (Hasya), Excitement (Arati), Fear (Bhaya), Sorrow (Śoka) and Repugnance (Jugupsa) were close associates of Lust and Sexual Passion. Anger (Kṛodha), Conceit (Māna), Deciet (Māya) and Greed (Lobha) and their sub types are said to be the sixteen grand children of Delusion. Another minister of King Delusion is Sensual Pleasure whose escort is Desire (Bhogatṛṣṇa).
Thus Excellence and Rational saw the King Delusion who was surrounded by his powerful kith and kin. Seven friends of King Delusion who surrounded him were Knowledge-obscuring, Vision-obscuring, Feeling-producing, Age-determining, Name-determining, Status-determining and Power-obscuring karmas. They were present there alongwith their subordinates (sub-types). Thus Rational introduced the family of Delusion who had conquered the entire world with the help of his friends and relatives.
When excellence enquired from Rational if there was anyone in the world who was not subject to sorrow by these powerful enemies, Rational revealed that there are only a few people who are wise and vigilant and succeeded in overpowering this powerful army headed by Delusion.
Excellence then expressed his desire to meet Contentment (Santoṣa) the opponent of Delusion. Both had realised that the source of “The Sense of Taste’ was the minister “Sensual Pleasure’. He was the father of “The Sense of Taste’ and other senses. So they set out to meet Contentment in the City of worldly sojourn. On the way Excellence asked about the relation between “Maturing-of-Deeds’ (Karma Pariṇama) and Delusion. Rational replied that both were like brothers and Delusion was the Commander-in-chief of “Maturing-of-Deeds’. “Maturing-of-Deeds’ had presented the kingdom to Delusion. They had acquired the kingdom by force and ruled “The Worldly Souls’ as they were ignorant and deluded.
When they reached the city of Worldly Sojourn (Bhavacakrapur), spring season had set in. Rational and Excellence observed the drama of sensual pleasures, lust, delusion, false pride, sorrow, fear and seven vices viz., hunting, taking to alcoholic drinks, taking non-vegetarian food, going to prostitutes and other women, robbery and gambling in the four corners of the world viz, human kingdom, heaven, hell and lower kingdom of plants and animals. When they saw different people in different moods and conditions they realised the omnipresence of King Delusion and his associates.
When they were roaming in the city they saw seven witches namely Oldage (Jarā), Disease (§uja), Death (Mṛtyu), Life (Jīvīkā), Wickedness (Khalatā), Deformity (Kurupatā), Poverty (Daridṛatā) and Misfortune (Durbhāgyata). Their looks were deformed and their appearance was not pleasant. As their names so are their duties to torture the people by subjecting them to birth and death, old age and youth, disease and good health, wickedness and affection, deformity and beauty, poverty and richness, misfortune and good fortune. They rejoiced in subjecting the worldly souls to pain and sorrow but they remained helpless in the city of renunciation (Niṛvṛiti Nagar). Due to Delusion the people of the city of worldly sojourn do not fear these devils and experience humiliation at the hands of “Maturing-of-Deeds’ and Delusion.
Rational then showed Excellence the world of Perverse Attitude. At length he explained the philosophies of Nyāya, Vaiṣeṣika, Sānkhya, Buddhism, Miṅāṅsā and Carvāka, which were ruled by Perverse Attitude (Mithyātva) and then went on to elucidate Jainism comprising the seven elements (Tattvas- namely Jīva, Ajīva, Āṣrava, Saṅvara, Nirjara, Bandha and Mokṣa). He said that the conquerors, omniscients, spiritual-adepts who relinquished perverse attitude, treaded on the path of emancipation and became victors, liberated themselves from the clutches of “Maturing-of-Deeds’ and Delusion.
When they entered the city of Jainpur (Jainism) Excellence pleaded Rational to show him Contentment, the opponent of Delusion. Rational then said that on the mountain of Discrimination (Viveka) is the summit of Vigilance (Apramatatā), where Contentment dwells. On their way they met the pious who had renounced the world, vowed to protect all the creatures by granting them fearlessness. They respect all women and practise the vows of non-violence, truthfulness, non-stealing, celibacy and non-possession. Just as a lotus remains detached in the muddy pool so also the monks live a detached life, full of compassion and renunciation. They do not cook their food but search for it in different places and never take that food which is acquired by hurting any living being in thought, word and deed.
These monks do not entertain Perverse Attitude, Delusion, Attachment, Aversion, Lust, Ignorance, and other relatives of Delusion. They are ever vigilant to conquer the eight Kings (Karmas). They are unaffected by the sorrows of the worldly sojourn and are uninfluenced by the worldly disasters and chaos.
They reached the City of Good (Sātvik Mānaspur) and entered the canopy of consciousness and found that it was devoid of any sorrow and misery. They saw the mountain of Discrimination and the peak of Vigilance. There upon they entered the city of Jainpur, whose inhabitants are the members of the four fold congregation viz., monks (sādhu), nuns (sādhvi), laymen (ṣrāvaka) and lay women (ṣrāvika). They were always absorbed in austerity, meditation, scriptural study, service, spiritual contemplation and lead a life of renunciation. Detachment is the altar of this city and the throne is the energy of the soul, adorned by the King Right Conduct (Cāritra Dharmarāj).
Excellence was delighted to visit the city and his joy knew no bounds when he comprehended the mystery of the allegory presented above by his uncle, Rational.
The four faces of the King “Right Conduct’ are Charity (Dāna), Virtuous Character (Śila), Austerity (Tapa) and Spiritual Contemplation (Bhāva). Thus the people of Jainpur were happy to have Right-Conduct as their King as all his four aspects gave them great joy and bliss. The Queen of King Right-Conduct seated next to him was none other than “Renunciation’ (Virati). The five friends of the King seated near the King were the five types of conducts- Sāmāyika, Chedopasthapaniyā, Parihāra-Viṣuddhi, Sūkṣma-Samparāya and Yathākhyāta. The two sons of the King are Complete vows (Śramaṇa Dharma) and Partial vows (Grahastha Dharma).
The first Prince was surrounded by ten friends viz Forgiveness (Kṣamā), Modesty (Mārdava), Simplicity (Ārjava), Liberation (Muktatā), Austere Practises (Tapoyoga), Self-Restraint (Saṅyaṅa), Truthfulness (Satya), Spiritual Cleanliness (Śauca), Detachment (Akincanya), Celibacy (Brahṁacarya). Pure Disposition of Nature (Sadhāvasāratā) was said to be the wife of Prince complete vows.
Prince Partial Vows was surrounded by twelve friends namely partial vows of non-violence (ahiṁsā), truthfulness (satya), non-stealing (acaurya), celibacy (brahṁacarya), non-possession (aparigraha), limitation of travelling in a life time (diṣivrata), limitation of enjoying the worldly pleasures (bhogopabhoga parimāṇa vrata), renunciation of unnecessary activities (anarthadan²a), vow of equanimity (sāmāyika), limitation of wandering (deṣavakāṣikā), vow of equanimity for a day or so (pauṣada), practice of giving to the monks and nuns (athitisamvibhāga) and Imbibing good qualities (Sadguṇaraktatā) was the wife of the second Prince.
Right Faith is the Commander-In-Chief of King Right Conduct who protects and safeguards the interests of both the Princes. He enables all the citizens of Jainpur to have firm faith in the seven elements (Tattvas) and remain equanimous, detached and compassionate. His wife is Good Vision (Sudṛṣṭi) and Right Perception is the minister. The five friends of the minister are the five types of perceptions namely, Sensory Perception (Mati Jñāna), Scriptural Knowledge (Śruta Jñāna), Clairvoyance (Avadhi Jñāna), Telepathy (Manaª Paryāya Jñāna) and Omniscience (Kevala Jñāna).
When Excellence asked Rational to show him Contentment, Rational pointed out to the sixth friend of the first Prince ie. Self-Restraint and said that Contentment belonged to his family and that he was responsible in conquering the senses of touch, taste etc., and Desirelessness is the wife of Contentment who is responsible in enabling the aspirants to be free from material desires and sensual cravings. Thus Contentment is an able and enterprising administrator of King Right Conduct.
Thus Rational and Excellence saw the king, army, kingdom and relatives of both Delusion and Right Conduct. Delusion and his relatives bondaged “The Worldly Souls’ where as Right Conduct and his members liberated the soul from the worldly sojourn and sent them to the City of Emancipation.
Rational and Excellence stayed in Jainpur for the summer and winter season and then left for their land. When they reached the palace, King Auspicious greeted them. Queen Beauty, Prince Learned and all the Generals and Ministers were present there. All of them greeted Rational and Excellence and inquired about their journey and findings. Then Rational narrated their experiences and their journey to the three lands and revealed the source of ““The Sense of Taste’’ to be the daughter of “Sensual Pleasures’. They also narrated their experience in the land of Discrimination and revealed about contentment and the lives of the citizens of Discrimination who enjoyed spiritual joy and bliss in the City of Emancipation after terminating their stay in the worldly sojourn.
On the other hand Irrational, the brother of Learned, was so engrossed in eating meat of animals and humans, drinking and merry making that he began to kidnap people and kill them. He was caught one day and physically assaulted, thus he met his end.
When his brother Learned came to know about it he reflected upon the evils of ““The Sense of Taste’’, as it was responsible for his brother’s death. So he and his entire family were inspired to embrace the path of renunciation.
At this juncture the learned Ācārya who was none other than Prince “Learned’ informed King Naravāhana, Ripudārana and others about the cause of his renunciation.
Naravāhana was worried about his son Ripudārana (as he was influenced by Pride and Falsehood) as he had expelled him from his kingdom. But when he saw Ripudārana in the audience he asked the spiritual adept about the future of his son. The Master said that Pride and Falsehood were responsible for his derogatory condition. If he associated himself with the Princesses Humility and Truthfulness, he could be freed from the clutches of Pride and Falsehood.
When Naravāhana could not get his son married to Humility and Truthfulness because of Pride and Falsehood he decided to renounce the world and tread on the path of spiritual purification. So he crowned his son as King and initiated himself under the learned Ācārya.
At this stage “The Worldly Soul’ who was in the guise of Ripudārana told “The-True-Doctrine’, Prince “Good-Spirited’, “Rich-Insight’ and “Innocence’ about his experiences and evil influence of Pride and Falsehood which led to his destruction in the birth of Ripudārana.
As he was totally overpowered by Pride and Falsehood, his character was ridiculed by the wise where as selfish people flattered him. As “Good Fortune’ favoured him, he ruled for quite sometime. But as days went by he became very arrogant and did not respect anyone.
Once when a mighty Emperor (Cakravarti) invaded his land, he did not pay any respect to the Emperor. The Emperor sent a Mystic to teach Ripudārana a lesson. When the Mystic approached him, Pride and Falsehood vanished from there and Ripudārana was subject to physical assault and humiliation.
Then Ripudārana realised that under the influence of Pride and Falsehood he had committed heinous crimes by killing his mother and wife. He was made to dance in front of the Emperor and made to bow at the feet of untouchables. Thus he met with his end in the birth of Ripudārana. Thereafter he was born in hell and took many births in other existences as well as in hellish existences.
While “The Worldly Soul’ was narrating his tale and his experiences in the worldly sojourn “Rich-Insight’ contemplated upon the dreadful influences of Pride and Falsehood and thought that “The Worldly Soul’ made no use of his human birth and landed in hell and other existences to experience the fruit of his actions. After a long time, “The Worldly Soul’ was then sent to the human existence, where he was born as Vāmdeva in the city of Vardhamānapura.
CONCLUDING REMARKS OF THE AUTHOR
At the end of the fourth chapter the author remarks that one should not indulge in Pride and Falsehood and be allured by the pleasures of “The Sense of Taste’’ and waste this precious human birth which is capable of effecting Emancipation. Those who are arrogant and engrossed in the sensual pleasures of taste, experience all kinds of miseries and sorrows in this birth and next.
The author says that he was explained the nature of Pride and Falsehood and ““The Sense of Taste’’ and instructs one and all to free themselves from them and have faith in “The-True-Doctrine’.