Experiences of “The Worldly Soul’ in the lower existences are followed by his birth in the human kingdom where he was born to King Padma and Queen Nandā in the city of Jayasthala in Bharat. He was named Nandivardhana and his invisible internal friend “Good Fortune’, accompanied him, although he became very friendly with Anger (Vaivānara) son of his nurse Indiscrimination (internal family). Day by day the influence of Anger on Nandivardhna grew and it became very immense and apparent for, Anger served him the pills of wicked thoughts from time to time. The King had appointed the best teachers and counsellers to educate and guide the Prince. But the Prince became so fiery and impetuous in the company of Anger that his friends and teachers dreaded his company. When learned Vidura, the prime attendant of the King informed the King after keeping a track of the activities of the Prince, the King became worried.

He called upon the teacher to confirm the findings. The teacher told that unfortunately the Prince was under the influence of anger and due to delusion the Prince considered anger as his best friend. As a result his education and talent was not channelised in the right direction. The King, learned Vidura and the teacher reflected upon ways of saving Nandivardhana from the clutches of “Anger’. Then Vidura suggested to call upon Siddhaputra, the famous astrologer for consultation.


When Siddhaputra the astrologer came he suggested that if Nandivardhana was married to Forbearance, the daughter of “King Auspicious disposition’ and Queen Calmness who lived in the city of “Beautiful Heart’, he could be delivered from the clutches of anger, for Anger will vanish in the presence of Forbearance.

The King was very happy to hear this. Then Siddhaputra informed him that they were the inner relatives and did not belong to the external world. He said that there are two kinds of empires- external and internal and the latter was controlled by “Maturing-of-Deeds’ who is merciless and often self- willed. He is assisted by “Fruition-of-Time’ and acts according to the destiny of each person. If the destiny is unfavourable, how much ever one pleads to “Maturing-of-Deeds’, he remains helpless in altering the current status of any being. Hence it is said that only when he wills he will arrange the marriage of Forbearance and “The Worldly Soul’ who is in the guise of Nandivardhana. Until then it was wise to have patience. Thus Siddhaputra gave solace to the royal family. The King ordered Vidura to keep him informed about his son.

The next day Vidura met Nandivardhana and narrated the narrative of Sparana “The Sense of Touch’, in order to inspire the Prince to abandon the company of the wicked and the vicious.


Vidura reveals the narrative of “The Sense of Touch’ as told to Maturity (Manīī), Immature (Bāla) and Moderate (Madhyam-Buddhi)- the sons of King Enjoyment of Deeds (Karmavilās) and Queen Auspicious Deeds (Śubhasundari) Inasupicious (Akualamālā) and Mediocre (Sāmanyarūpā) respectively. As Moderate was not present, Maturity and Immature happened to meet a person in the garden who was attempting suicide. He was “Sparana’, “The Sense of Touch’, and was separated from “the soul just liberated’ (Bhavajantu) by “The-True -Doctrine’. Prior to abandoning the pleasure of “The Sense of Touch’ the liberated soul enjoyed them in all varieties of soft and silken textures, creams, lotions, and even the touch of his beautiful and charming wife, which he relinquished later on. Hence “The Sense of Touch’ was furious and wanted to commit suicide.

Immature took pity on the person and promised him his undying loyalty and friendship. But Maturity did not take much liking to him and remained aloof. The King and the Queen “Inauspicious’ were happy but the Queen “Auspicious’ was not delighted to see the new friend of her sons.

Maturity ordered his friend and attendant Understanding (Bodha) to survey the where abouts of the new friend ““The Sense of Touch’’ and inform him. In course of time with the help of Influence (Prabhāva) Understanding was able to report to Maturity. He reported that the senses of touch, taste, smell, sight and sound were sent on an expedition to conquer contentment (Santoa) by the King Attachment (Rāgakesarī).

Maturity thanked Influence and Understanding and decided to be vigilant in the company of ““The Sense of Touch’’. There upon he protected himself and did not allow ““The Sense of Touch’’ to rule him, where as Immaturity became engrossed in the pleasures of touch and became restless in its absence.

When the third brother Moderate returned home, Immature introduced him to his new friend, but Maturity advised him to be careful and warned him of the temptations of ““The Sense of Touch’’, Moderate seeked the advise of his mother and she narrated the tale of two cupids to inspire him to be patient and watchful.

Two cupids, were once cheated by a demigod and goddess. Incourse of time when they were told the truth by the teacher named Inspiration that it was “desire for pleasures’ that cheated them, they realize the nature of ignorance and sin and renounce the world along with their parents. Queen Mediocre thus inspired Moderate to wait for time to ripen to come to any conclusion when there was doubt of this kind. Thus Moderate remained neutral. He was neither attached to ““The Sense of Touch’’, nor did he keep away from his company.

On the other hand Immature remained engrossed in the pleasures of the world and his mother too approved of his activities. All the three brothers lived in their respective ways. Once they all got ready to celebrate the spring season along with the other citizens in the Lilādhara garden. In the garden they all worshiped the God of Love (Kāmadeva) and engaged themselves in merry- making. “Maturing-of-Deeds’ was the inner King and Destroyer of Enemies (Śatrumardana) was the ruler of the city and his beautiful wife was Queen Sensuality (Madanakandalī). She too joined the celebrations and went to the garden to worship “The God of Love’. When Immature saw her and happened to touch her, he became intoxicated and desperate to have her. Moderate tried to console him, but all words fell on deaf ears.

One night when Immature was going towards the palace, he was kidnapped by some Vidhyādhara and Mediocre noticed all this and ran behind his brother and reached him after seven days. Immature was tortured and sentenced to all kinds of sacrificial punishments. When Mediocre found him, he saved Immature from the clutches of the evil people and got him home and nursed him. When Maturity came to know about all this he advised them to relinquish the company of ““The Sense of Touch’’, but Immature was still deluded and desired the company of Queen Sensuality. This incident inspired Mediocre to give up the company of ““The Sense of Touch’’, but the fire of sex and desire tempted Immature to tread on the forbidden path. Immature landed in the harem of the Queen, where he was caught and sentenced to death. Immature escaped from there and reached his palace and for a long time never came out of the palace for the fear of being caught and assaulted.

The Worldly Soul’ narrated the story of Nandivardhana to “The-True-Doctrine’ and others and Vidura narrated the allegory of ““The Sense of Touch’’ to inspire Prince Nandivardhana to relinquish Anger and save himself like Maturity did and not fall prey to temptations like Immature did.

One day the King “Enjoyment-of-Deeds’ told his Queen “Auspicious’, that he favours those who relinquish ““The Sense of Touch’’, and those who favour ““The Sense of Touch’’ are subject to all kinds of unfavourable conditions in life. Thus he favoured Maturity and said he was wise and worthy.

One day a Jain Ācārya “Awakener’ (Prabhodhanarati) came and stayed in the outskirts of city. All the three brothers, Mature, Immature, Moderate along with their mothers went to the garden to pay their homage to the great spiritual adept who had come there. They went to the temple situated there and then prostrated before the teacher and sat down near him. King Destroyer of enemies (Śatrumardana), Queen Sensuality, Minister “Good Understanding’ and other generals and citizens too came to the garden to pay their due respects to the spiritual teacher.

During his discourse on righteousness, the master said that righteousness alone is competent in procuring spiritual bliss and worldly pleasures and karma is the root cause of all miseries and deprivation. He added that it was difficult to conquer the five senses and only a few succeeded in conquering them. Such is the alluring nature of “The Sense of Touch’ and other senses that people are tempted, defiled and ruled by them. He said that there are four types of people: Inferior, Moderate, Great and Greatest.

(1) Greatest of the four kinds of persons are those who conquer the sensual pleasures and do not yield to the temptations of the alluring senses. They realize the true nature of the self and tread on the path of righteousness and attain emancipation. Such liberated and perfected souls are the Greatest of all kinds of people.

(2) Great people are those who consider ““The Sense of Touch’’ and other senses as their enemies. They observe contentment and self- restraint as much as possible in every walk of life. They remain indifferent if they are subject to the enjoyment of the pleasures.

(3) Moderate are those who are not able to choose between renunciation of pleasures and enjoyment of pleasures. They are unable to accept any of them and remain doubtful of both the ways. They are able to analyse the effect of each but are inefficient to embrace any one of them completely. They enjoy the pleasures of the senses but at the same time remain fearful of their fruits. When they are instructed and inspired some give up the pleasures and become happy and those who yield to temptations fall to the lowest category.

(4) Inferior people are those who are in the grip of “The Sense of Touch’ and are totally engrossed in enjoying the sensual pleasures. They perform all kinds of vicious deeds that bring them disrepute and humiliation. They are unable to look beyond the worldly pleasures and not bothering the consequences, remain absorbed in acquiring and enjoying the pleasures. They do not heed to any kind of advice and consider their well wishers as foes. In other words he is subject to all kinds of afflictions because of his inferior nature and choice in life.

When the discourse on the four types of people was going on, Immature remained absorbed in seeing the Queen “Sensuality’, Moderate was inspired not to yield to the temptations and Maturity was inclined to renounce the sensual pleasures and tread on the path of righteounsess to attain the highest good in life.

When Awakener was discoursing he also said that deeds (Karmas) are of three kinds viz., auspicious, inasupicious and mediocre. He also said that the inauspicious and mediocre nature of the beings was not natural to them but was in accordance to their creator namely “Enjoyment-of-Deeds’, their father and their respective mothers (karmas).

When the minister inquired about the secret of greatness of the greatest kind of people the teacher revealed that this capacity was latent in each person to conquer themselves and attain liberation and this could be done by taking to partial vows (Āgāra Dharma) or complete vows (Aagāra Dharma).

Influenced by ““The Sense of Touch’’ and mother “Inauspicious’, Immature, did not follow a single word of the discourse and remained attracted to the Queen throughout the discourse. At the end, he ran towards the Queen to touch her and feel her, but fell down near her. The King and the people were aghast and angry at this conduct of Immature. When they enquired about his plight, “Awakener’ revealed that he was under the influence of “Inauspicious’ and ““The Sense of Touch’’.

When the King enquired about the future of “Immature’ “Awakener’ revealed that after they all went to their destinations, Immature would flee from there and meet his death at the hands of an untouchable and become a denizen of hell in his next birth. He further revealed that not only Immature, but all the people were under the influence of Inauspicious deeds and ““The Sense of Touch’’. When the king “Destroyer of Enemies’ (Śatrumardana) heard this, he said that unless he destroyed them how could he be “Destroyer of Enemies’. He gave orders to destroy the two, but “Awakener’ revealed that they are the internal enemies, how can then one lead an expedition externally to conquer them. He said that Vigilance (Apramāda) is the weapon by which they can be destroyed. Thus the King and Moderate became learned and accepted the partial vows of a house-holder. Maturity accepted the complete vows in thought (Bhāva Dīka) and decided to renounce them in word and deed (Dravya Dīka), for the King wanted to celebrate his initiation ceremony grandly.

The initiation ceremony and celebrations continued for eight days and on the ninth day the King crowned Prince Sulochana as the King and along with Maturity, Moderate, the Queen, the Minister and many others the King renounced the world and got initiated in the holy order.

Awakener’ discoursed on the greatness of this kind of detached life and said that whosoever renounced the world became free from sins and the vicious ways of the world. They experience contentment and spiritual bliss in this birth and if they destroy all the karmas they reach the shore of the worldly sojourn. Then “Destroyer of Enemies’ told “Awakener’ that Maturity had all excellent qualities and enquired if there were more people like him. Then Awakener revealed that “Auspicious’ is the mother of “Maturity’ and all those who are like Maturity are the sons of “Auspicious Deeds’. So also those who are vicious and wicked like Immature are the sons of “Inauspicious’ and those who are Moderate are the sons of “Mediocre Deeds’. Thus all living beings belong to the family of “Enjoyment-of-Deeds’ (Karma vilās). Hence the wise should give up the path of Immature and forsake the company of the wicked friends. Those who desire their well being should try and be like Maturity and from the life of Moderate one should realise that the company of the evil- minded begets evil and the company of the wise begets wisdom and happiness.

Thus “Awakener’ inspired the multitude which had gathered there to here him. In course of time Maturity destroyed all his karmas and became emancipated while the others too destroyed most of the karmas and went to heaven and shall be liberated in future existences. As predicted Immature met his death at the hands of an untouchable and became a denizen of hell and shall wander in the worldly sojourn and experience all kinds of adversities and impositions in different existences.

Thus Vidura concluded the allegory of ““The Sense of Touch’’ and told Nandivardhana to give up the company of Anger. Nandivardhana too grasped the essence of the story and said that bad company should be forsaken at any cost. His friend Anger looked at him furiously and gave him a pill of intense anger, as a result Nandivardhana insulted Vidura (learning) and physically assaulted him and Vidura informed the King about this incident, but they decided to remain silent for the time being.

The King had built a separate palace for the Prince. When the Prince completed his formal education, he returned to the palace and the king celebrated this occasion grandly.


One day the Prince got the news that his cousin Kanakaekhara had come to meet them after he had a small tiff with his father, Kanakchua because of his minister Blemish (Dumukha). He was made to stay with Nandivardhana and both the cousins became close to each other.

One day when Nandivardhana enquired about the discord between the King and the Prince, Kanakaekhara narrated the incident that led to the difference between his father and him. He said that he had accepted the vows of a householder from a Jaina monk. When he was enlightened about the essence of the scriptures and about non-violence, meditation, self-restraint and charity, he decided to adopt the path of benevolence. He began to take keen interest in charitable works and gave special grants to noble people through out the length and breadth of his country. In course of time he proved to be an ideal Samaritan.

The minister “Blemish’ did not approve of all this and poisoned the King’s ears against the Prince. He suspected the good work of the Prince and remained silent. The Prince did not want to create a scene and so he left the kingdom. In his absence the King and the Queen initially became very sad, but later on they thought that he must have gone to Jayasthala, to his Aunt’s place and wanted three of his ministers to go and bring Kanakaekara back.

In the meanwhile a messenger had come from Vīālā who brought a marriage proposal of Vimalānana and Ratnāvati, the daughters of King Nandan and Queens Prabhāvati and Padmāvati, respectively. Vimalānana was engaged to Vibhākar, the son of Prabhākar who was a brother of Queen Prabhāvati, Vimalānana had once heard about Kanakaekhara and had decided to marry him and none else. As her sister was very attached to her, she too expressed her desire to marry the best friend of Kanakaekhara. Both the Princesses accomplished the messenger and reached the home-town of Kanakaekhara where they were well received.

Hearing this Kanakchu²a sent his three ministers to call the Prince and Nandivardhana. The ministers came to Jayasthala and requested King Padma to send both the Princes after telling them about the marriage proposal and arrival of the two beautiful Princesses in Kuavarta.

King Padma immediately gave orders to go to Kuavarta and an army headed by able Generals accompanied Kanakaekhara and Nandivardhana. At this point “The Worldly Soul’ remarked that Anger (Vaivānara) and “Good Fortune’ (Puyodaya) (inner friends) too accompanied him ie. Nandivardhana to Kuavarta.


On their to Kuavarta they reached the city Formidable (Raudracitta) which was ruled by King Deception (Durabhisandhi) and Queen Merciless (Nikaruatā). They had a daughter Violence (Hisā) and Hatred, Jealousy, Agitation, Disquiet, Disorder and others were the prominent citizens of this kingdom. Violence had a very ghastly face and awful personality.

Anger, the inner friend of Nandivardhana took him in this city without informing Kanakaekhara and got him married to Violence. He advised Nandivardhana to please Violence by assulting one and all. Gradually Nandivardhana became so violent that people began to dread him as well as his name.

Then he joined Kanakaekhara. On their way to their destination, Nandivardhana defeated the cruel dacoits residing in the caves with the help of Anger and Violence. After the battle with the dacoits they reached their destination and Kanakaekhara got married to Vimalānana and Nandivardhana got married to Rathnāvati.

Vibhākar, the son of Prabhākar who wanted to marry Vimalānana, kidnapped both the newly married princesses. Here again with the help of Anger and Violence Nandivardhana reached the enemy, defeated him and made him a captive. When they entered the city, people rejoiced and welcomed them. They were all praise for Nandivardhana who fought bravely and defeated the enemies. When Nandivardhana heard all the praise and applause he was convinced of the greatness and goodness of Anger and Violence.

At this point “The Worldly Soul’ addressed “Innocence’ and said that actually it was “Good Fortune’ that made him famous but due to delusion he remained indebted to Anger and Violence.

When Nandivardhana was returning to Kuavarta after uniting with his wife Ratnāvati and defeating Vibhakar, he happened to see the charming princess Kanakmañjarī, the step-sister of Kanakaekhara. Kanakmañjarī too saw Nandivardhana and both wanted to get married to each other. Kanakaekhara and Kanakchua did not object to this relation and so Kanakmanjari was married to Nandivardhana.

Kanakchu²a sent Vibhākar and others to their respective lands and Nandivardhana enjoyed life with his wives Ratnāvati and Kanakmañjarī. All along he thought great of Anger and Violence and Anger served him the pills of “Cruel Thoughts’. As a result Nandivardhana became impatient and violent, he became short-tempered and left no stone unturned in verbally assaulting one and all.

The influence of his evil inner friends viz., Anger and Violence increased day by day. He took to hunting and killing meek animals. When Kanakaekhara came to know this, he advised Nandivardhana to give up the company of Anger and Violence. This advice ignited the flames of Anger and Violence in the mind of Nandivardhana and he decided to return to his native land. At this juncture his father sent a messenger with the news that his kingdom was attacked by Yavana, the King of Banga.

Nandivardhana reached the outskirts of his land along with his wives; there he fought the enemy King and killed him. He met his parents and the entire kingdom celebrated the victory. In leisure Nandivardhana rejoiced in the company of Anger and Violence, and considered them his best friends and whole and soul. This victory got him even more close to Anger and Violence.


Nandivardhana continued to go for hunting. When his parents came to know about this, they became totally upset and wanted to free Nandivardhana from the clutches of Anger and Violence. The same astrologer who advised them previously to get him married to Forbearance, this time advised them to get him married to her step-sister “Compassion’ whose relatives are Auspicious-Disposition, Calmness, Elegance, Contentment, Courage and others. He said “Compassion’ alone is competent in procreating all that is good, noble, happiness, worthy and emancipation. Siddhaputra, the astrologer added that “Compassion’ is the essence of life, fountain of virtue, generator of righteousness, and destroyer of miseries, enmity and sins. In other words only “Compassion’ is efficient in over-powering and destroying Violence. He said that Nandivardhana could be freed from the clutches of Violence only if he got married to “Compassion’ but this will be possible only when “Auspicious Disposition’ is favourable and when the time is ripe. So the King had no other option left before him, but to wait and watch.

After sometime the king decided to crown- prince Nandivardhana and gave orders for the arrangements of the crowning ceremony. At that time a messenger “Clear Speech’ (Sphuvacana) came from Śārdalpur with the marriage proposal of Madanamanjusa, the daughter of King “Conqueror of Enemies’ (Aridamana).

Petty argument between the messenger and Nandivardhana led to dire consequences. Nandivardhana was totally under the influence of Anger and Violence. At this juncture his inner friend “Good Fortune’ departed from him and Nandivardhana stroked the messenger with his sword and cut him into two pieces. When his father, King Padma interrupted he too was killed and cut into two halves. When his mother saw this, she came near him to take the sword from his hands, he did not think even for a while and slaughtered her. In the same way he killed his wives, his brother and other relatives. Thus, influenced by Anger and Violence he committed many hideous murders. He was later caught and captivated in prison from where he escaped only to set the country to flames. Such were the consequences of the evil company of Anger and Violence.

Nandivardhana ran towards the forest and found himself amidst a band of robbers and dacoits. Once when they were attacked by the army of Kanakpur, Nandivardhana was caught along with other dacoits and presented before King Vibhākar. Vibhākar recognised Nandivardhana and wondered how did the famous and mighty Nandivardhana be reduced to the state of a dacoit. When Nandivardhana revealed his past, Vibhākar criticised Nandivardhana for the hideous crime commited by him. When Nandivardhana heard this Anger and Violence activated and influenced Nandivardhana to murder his rescuer. Later he also tried to kill Kanakaekhara but Kanakaekhara managed to escape. Thus one incident after another led him to the garden Malaya-Vilaya situated outside Śārdalpur.

Gods and Goddesses gathered there to worship the omniscient Discrimination (Viveka), King “Conqueror of Enemies’ along with his kith and kin, generals, sub-ordinates and citizens came to worship and hear the discourse of the omniscient. After hearing the discourse the King enquired about his messenger and the fate of Nandivardhana and Jayasthala, as he had heard that Jayasthala was reduced to ashes.

The omniscient adept revealed all that had happened in the life of Nandivardhana and in the land of Jayasthala. He further said Nandivardhana was present there and was overpowered by Anger and Violence. He also revealed about the past existences of Nandivardhana and explained the journey of the soul in manifold existence and the difficulty of acquiring a human birth.


When the King questioned if Anger was friendly to anybody else besides Nandivardhana the spiritual adept elucidated the three families of each “worldly soul’ as follows:

(1) The first family of each soul is the inner family and its members are forbearance, humility, straightforwardness, contentment, knowledge, faith, happiness, truthfulness, austerity and others. This family is natural to the soul, in other words, it is latent in the soul since beginningless time and it alone can effect emancipation and redemption from the worldly-sojourn.

(2) The second family is that of passions like anger, conceit, deceit, greed, attachment, aversion, delusion and the like. These are not natural to the soul, in other words they are associated with the soul since beginningless time, but can be terminated. Only ignorant people consider them to be natural, where as the wise exercise self-restraint, subdue the passions and become victors. The members of this family instigate all vicious activities and this family is solely responsible for the karmic conditioning of the soul. It keeps the soul constrained in the worldly sojourn whereby it is subject to all kinds of adversities and afflictions.

(3) The third family is the family with whom each Worldly Soul lives and is born into. His parents who bring him in the world, his brothes, sisters, grandparents, uncles, aunts and other are the members of this family. This family too is not natural to the soul, in other words it is not eternal. There is no family in the world which has not experienced the death of another family member. Sometimes the members of this family are favourable and at other times they prove to be disadvantageous. Most often this family nourishes the second family of passions and waters the roots of rebirth. When some aspirants tread on the path of righteousness, this family gears them up for emancipation. Thus Anger and Violence are the family members of each and every soul caught in the web of transmigration.

When enquired by the king, why people did not embrace the members of the first family in place of the second, the omniscient replied that since beginningless time both the families are in opposition to each other, the passions overpower the subtle noble qualities of the soul, as a result they seem to be natural to the soul, which is nothing short of a fata morgana (mirage). When the Worldly Souls are instructed and inspired to forsake them, they do not heed to the precious advice, due to the influence of the second family of ignorance and passions.

He further said that those desirous of their well-being should first have knowledge of both the inner families, then steadfast faith in “The-True-Doctrine’. Vigilance and Hard-work is required to conquer the second family with the help of the first family.

Renunciation of the third family, destruction of the second family and nourishment of the first family is required for emancipation. The path is indeed difficult but its fruit is sublime and out of the world.

He said that all the souls are wayfarers as they come and go, meet and depart in this world, but those who renounce the world without trying to conquer their passions indulge in self-mockery. On the other hand those who renounce the third family and conquer the second family, by establishing themselves in the first family, their renunciation alone is fruitful as it effects spiritual prosperity and emancipation.

Thus the King apprehended the nature, cause and fruit of the three families and realised the awfulness of the worldly sojourn ie. birth and death and decided to renounce the world for self-realization and spiritual upliftment. There upon along with many ministers and subordinates the King renounced the world and was initiated by the spiritual adept in the holy order.

But Nandivardhana remained unmoved and thought ill of the spiritual adept and left the place. After some time he met a young man named Explosion (Dharādhara) and a quarrel between them resulted in their death. They both pierced each other with their swords and were born in hell, the abode of sinners. Consequently they were born as snakes, lions, falcons, ichneumons and other animals, in between being born in different hellish existences as bitter foes. “The Worldly Soul’ kept on wandering in different existences, as infinite time span passed on.

Thus “The Worldly Soul’ narrated his experiences in the worldly sojourn. He addressed “Innocence’ in the presence of “The-True-Doctrine’, Prince “Good-Spirited’ and “Rich-Insight’ and said that when he was elevated a little, destiny favoured him, as a result of which his good old friend “Good Fortune’ accompanied him in his next birth. The concluding remarks of the author at the end of this chapter are summarised as follows:

He instructs one and all to understand the dreadful nature of “The Sense of Touch’, Anger and Violence and asks them to acquire “Good Fortune’ to be liberated from the Worldly Sojourn. He wishes that everyone should realise the importance of human birth and not fall prey to anger, violence and the alluring pleasures of “The Sense of Touch’.

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