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AN ANALYTICAL STUDY OF UPAMITI – BHAVA – PRAPAÑCA – KATHĀ

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CHAPTER I

 INTRODUCTION

Life of man today is multidimensional and multi-faceted. Science, technology, civilization, economics, power and politics have enabled man to scale new heights and greater horizons. The high skies, the deep seas, the wide oceans and the thickest forests have been explored by man in quest of happiness and truth. The glaring disparity between science and spirituality is so evident in recent times, that inspite of the mind, machine and motor, our hearts remain empty of peace and happiness. Man has challenged and investigated all the forces external to him but one dimension, challenge and investigation that endures him is his own self. The price that he is paying for the so called cultural, advanced and civilized life is so high that he has practically no time to look into his own self. It has been felt that in the light of scientific dynamism, spiritual dynamism has been ignored, which needs to be attended to urgently, to save the world of another war, calamity, chaos and confusion.

Science and spirituality though poles apart have co-existed since times immemorial and have played vital roles in shaping the history of mankind. Science studies and explores the external material world, where as spirituality is confined to the inner realms of the self. Science is based on experiment while spiritualism is the fruit of experience. Research and experiments of science have been carried from the atom to the cosmos while spirituality takes pride in answering queries of perfection and imperfection, conditioning and unconditioning of the self, bondage and liberation, ethics and aesthetics, metaphysics and philosophy.

The wonders of science and search of the truth are exclusively a human privilege and this includes the faculty of reading, writing and telling tales. Stories, tales, fables and parables have been an integral part of any literature and a powerful source of entertainment and education in any society. The history of story telling is as old as the history of mankind. The vast treasure house of stories have been the back bone of any civilization. The customs, traditions and rituals of the people of different lands are preserved in the form of stories and tales and a comprehensive study of the same enables us to understand their culture and history in the right perspective. Stories depict the life of the people and on the contrary lives of people are influenced by stories.

Through their progressive outlook and insight in life, story tellers and epic writers have created history and contributed to the evolution of mankind. The art of story telling is not hereditary of any particular community, religion or nation but is universal and so is its popularity and impression upon mankind. As Jagdish Chandra Jain says, ““Tales reflect various social, cultural, economic, political and geographical conditions including the diversity of customs and habits prevalent in different regions and peculiarities of physical features, temperament and nature of the people.’’ He further says, ““A story teller while narrating a story repeats, exaggerates and dramatises his narration in order to fascinate his audience.’’1

Since ages stories have not only been entertaining but gearing and discplining young and old alike with the golden principles to guide them onto the road leading to success in life. Directly and indirectly they tell us of ways to deal with whatever we face in life. Aristotle describes stories as a kind of cleansing of emotions.2 The Arabian Nights, the Aesop’s fables, the stories of Pañcatantra and Hitopadeṣa need no introduction. The popularity of Pañcatantra is evident from the fact that it has been translated in almost all Indian languages and more than fifty foreign languages. Following the Pañcatantra is the Hitopadeṣa, which is famous world wide for the animal stories. These primitive animal stories are life-like as the animals behave like human beings and are symbols of human mankind. Maria Leach observes, ““An animal tale is one of the oldest forms perhaps the oldest of the folklore and found every where on the globe at all levels of culture.’’33 These stories do not bear any spiritual or philosophical significance but have a didactic tone dealing with down to earth desires, fears and agonies of man faced by him in his day to day life.

INDIAN NARRATIVE LITERATURE

Indian Narrative Literature is immensely bountiful of epics, tales, stories and anecdotes of ancient history. Its source and richness is magnificent and has blended with the Indian etiquette in grandeur.44 The place it occupies in world literature is incredible and unparalleled because of the rich cultural and spiritual beacon that India is. India is a land of saints and seers, Tirthaṅkars and Mahātmās who have practised and preached the universal gospel of Non-violence and universal brotherhood. Hence the literature produced was not merely a written document but had the creative, transforming, enlightening and healing power. It was inspired by experience and narrated with conviction and the impact was titanic, which can be seen even in the life of the common man. Answers to all human emotions and mental conflicts besides socio-political exigencies can be traced in the vast Indian Narrative Literature.

Besides the above the description of nature, rivers, mountains, animals, birds, oceans, forests, trees and flowers is lively and splendid, spread on the vast canvass of Indian Narrative Literature.

The bedrock of Indian Culture is the Brahmanic and Śramaṇic traditions. Hinduism belonging to the Brahmanic tradition and Jainism and Buddhism are the two religions of the Śramaṇic current. India being a land of religion and spirituality, these three religions and the vast narrative literature written by the apostles of these religions and philosophies continue to influence the world. Not a single moment can be traced in the history of India when the Indian spirit was not inspired by religion. Hence the narrative literature of India is basically in a didactic tone and the propagators and preachers used the medium of stories to preach the elements of righteousness, truth and eternal values of right living.

The Vedas are the sacred texts of the Hindus. The two great epics namely Rāmāyaṇa and Mahābhārata and Purāṇic Literature are full of inspiring stories, descriptions and anecdotes. Most of the Sanskrit narrative literature written later on was based on these two great epics.55 The Upaniṣad tales too have become popular along with the philosophy of the Upaniṣads.

The Buddhist Jātaka Tales, the stories of former births of Buddha were basically didactic and told to preach the worldly wisdom.66 The extra ordinary narrative literature of the Buddhists are the Jātaka Tales and the Avadāna Literature, the former being in Pāli language and the latter being in Sanskrit.77 The Buddhist monks and nuns used these Jātakās and told them during the sermons.88 Franke opines that the Jātaka book is not the work of a single individual author, but is the product of the labours of compilers.99 The entire Buddhist literature is classified in three Piṭakās namely Vinaya Piṭaka, Sutta Piṭaka and Abhidamma Piṭaka. Vinaya Piṭaka explains the code of conduct of Buddhist monks and elaborates the disciplinary rules of the order of Buddhism. The Sutta pitaka is a collection of the principles of Buddhism in dialogue form and the Jatākas are a part of Sutta Piṭaka. Abhidhamma Piṭaka is the nucleus of the philosophical teachings of Buddha.1010

These Piṭakās contain many descriptions besides stories, which are entertaining and educative at the same time. The post-canonical Buddhist literature too is inspired by these Piṭakās. There are 547 Jātakās of which some are old and some new in Gāthā form.1111 The contents of these Jātakās are fables, fairy tales, witty tales, anecdotes, short stories, moral stories, sayings, pious legends and narratives. Many Jātakās bear simlarity with Vedic Ākhyāna and date back to the Vedic period.1212

Jainism is the ancient Indian religion propagated by Tīthaṅkaras, the last of them being Lord Mahāvira. More so, Jainism is a way of life, for the universal doctrines of Ahiṁsā, Anekānta and Aparigraha have inspired a vast multitude of people to tread on the path of righteousness and universal brotherhood. The Tīthaṅkaras, Apostles and Jaina monks are perfect pictures of divinity and messengers of peace. People from all walks of life have found spiritual solace in this Śramaṇic tradition whose watchwords are realization of the self, renunciation, non-violence and austerity. Maurice Winternitz remarks, ““Jainism has always remained a national Indian Religion whilst Buddhism developed into a world religion. It is true that, according to the belief of the Jainas, their religion is a “world religion’ in the sense that it is a religion not only for human beings of all races and classes, but even for animals, gods and deniznes of hell.’’1313

The exhaustive narrative list of Jains includes biographies of the 63 Śalākāpuruṣas (24 Tīthaṅkaras i.e. Ford makers, 12 Cakravartins i.e. rulers of the world, 9 Baladevās, 9 Vāsudevas and 9 Prativāsudevās), heroes, legends, didactic tales, parables, stories, fairy tales, folk tales, novels and dialogues. Winternitz remarks, ““The Jaina monks and authors have always been tellers of tales far rather than historians. The commentaries to the sacred texts contain not only a mass of traditions and legends, but also numerous fairy tales and stories and moreover that the legendary poems, the Purāṇas and Caritras were often only a frame in which all manner of fairy tales and stories were inserted. Now, in addition to all this, the Jainas have produced a vast fairy tale literature, in prose and in verse, in Sanskrit, Prakrit and Apabhraṁṣa. All these works, be the stories in plain prose or in simple verse, or elaborate poems, novels or epics, are all essentially sermons. They are never intended for mere enterat-ainment, but always serve the purpose of religious instruction and edification.”1414

JAINA NARRATIVE LITERATURE

The Jaina Narrative Literature can be studied under two broad heads namely-
1. Canonical Narrative Literature and
2. Non-Canonical Narrative Literature.

CANONICAL NARRATIVE LITERATURE

The Jaina Canonical Literature as accepted by the Śvetām-barās is a store house of religious tales and dialogues.1515 The Ācārāṅga Sūtra which primarily elaborates on the way of life of a monk also gives a biography of Lord Mahāvira. In the Kalpa Sūtra we get a glimpse of the life of other Tīthaṅkaras. The Suyaga²āṅga Sutta too contains many dialogues which highlights various religious sects prevalent in India at the time of Lord Mahāvira. The fifth Aṅga Bhagavatī carries dogmatic explanations in the form of dialogue. Besides Indiabhūti Gautama, Lord Mahāvira’s prime disciple, Śivarāja, Sudarṣana, Jayanthi, Somila approached Mahāvira with questions for clarifications. This work gives a more vivid picture than any other work, of the life and work of Mahāvira, his relationship to his disciples and contempo-raries and his whole personality.1616 Nāya Dhammakahāo, the sixth Aṅga is full of religious narrative tales and parables. ““Side by side with legends and parables of this nature, we also encounter regular novels, tales of travelers’ adventures, mariners’ fairy tales, robber tales and the like.’’1717 Here the parables take the form of a long narrative and at other times are in the form of a lively dialogue.

The narratives of the ten legendary householders at the time of Lord Mahāvira constitute the Uvasaggadasāo, the 7th Aṅga. The eighth Aṅga, Antaga²adas’o enumerates the life of 90 aspirants who lived at the time of the 22nd Tīthaṅkara Neminātha and 24th Tīthaṅkara Mahāvira. This Aṅga gives a vivid picture of the lives of those aspirants who took to rigorous austerities and attained emancipation in the last stages of life. We get a glimpse of the life of Kṛṣṇa and Śreṇika and the story of the downfall of Dvāraka. The 9th Aṅga, Anuttarovavāiyadasāo enumerates the narratives of those souls who attained perfection by undertaking rigorous austerities. The 11th Aṅga Vivāgasutta contains narratives in which the fruition of good and evil karmas are evidently show cased. In the Upāṅga Literature too narratives are scattered.

““The Uttarādhyayana Sūtra, is a compilation of various texts which belongs to various periods. The oldest nucleus consists of valuable poems series of gnomic aphorisms, parables, similies, dialogues and ballads which belong to the ascetic poetry of ancient India.’’1818 Besides the above a number of narrative descriptions are found in the commentary literature written on canons like Uttarādhyayana Niryukti, Daṣavaikālika Niryukti and Āvaṣyaka Niryukti etc.

The Digambaras believe that the original Aṅga Literature was lost long ago.1919 They have substitued it with secondary Canons called ““Anuyoga’’ and stands outside the Jaina canonical literature. The four classifications of the Anuyoga literature as described by the Digambaras are- 1. Prathamānuyoga, legendary works, to which belong the Purāṇas (Padma, Harivasṅṣa, Triṣaṣṭilakṣaṇa, Mahā Purāṇa, and Uttara Purāṇa) 2. Karaṇānuyoga, cosmological works: Sūrya­­  Prajñapti, Candra- Prajñapti, and Jayadhavala; 3. Dravyānuyoga, philosophical works of Kunda Kunda, Umāsvāti’s Tattvārthādhigama-sūtra with the commentaries and Samantabhadra’s Āptamīmāṅsa with the commentaries. 4. Caraṇānuyoga, ritual works: Vaṭṭakers’s Mūlācāra and Trivarṇācāra and Samantabhadra’s Rantankaraṇ²a Śrāvakācāra.2020

The Śvetāmbara classification of Anuyoga literature is a little diversified. They have divided the entire Aṅga literature in four Anuyogas namely-

Caraṇānuyoga           Ritual works
Dravyānuyoga           Philosophical works
Gaṇitānuyoga            Cosmological works
Dharmakathānuyoga  Legendary works.2121

The early Digambara literature constitutes the works of Kunda Kunda, Yativṛṣabha, Vaṭṭakera and Śivārya. The Bhāva Pāhu²a, Śīlapāhu²a, Yativṛṣabha, Tiloyapaṇṇatti, Mūlācāra (Vaṭṭakera), Mūlārādhana, Ratnakarṇ²a Śrāvakāchāra (Samanta-bhadra)- all these works are full of all types of Jaina Narrative Literature.2222

THE NON-CANONICAL JAINA NARRATIVE LITERATURE

Like the canonical narrative literature, the non-canonical narrative literature is rich and written partly in Sanskrit, Prākrit, Apabhraṅṣa and modern Indian languages. ““As the Jaina Canon was written down at so late a period, it is not possible to fix a definite line of demarcation between the canonical and the non-canonical literature. At all events the non-canonical literature already begins before the completion of the canon, and it has continued through all the centuries down to the present day.’’2323 The commentary literature and other works, like the Kathākoṣas contain numerous stories and descriptions24.24

CLASSIFICATION OF NARRATIVE LITERATURE

After a brief study of the significance of stories and Indian narrative literature with special reference to Jaina Narrative Literature, we now make a note of the classification of Narrative Literature on the basis of the contents of the Narratives. As is evident from above observation Jaina Narrative Literature is full of tales and stories of all types- folk tales, didactic tales, fairy tales, imaginary tales, religious tales, biographics and descriptions.

On the achievements of the Jainas in Indian Narrative Literature Hertel remarks, ““The mass of narratives and books of narratives among the Jainas is indeed vast. They are of great importance not only to the student of comparative fairy-tale lore, but also because, to a greater degree than other branches of literature, they allow us to catch a glimpse of the real life of the common people. Just as in the language of these narrative works there are frequent points of agreement with the vernaculars of the people, their subject- matter, too, gives a picture of the real life of the most varied classes of the people, not only the kings and priests, in a way which no other Indian literary works, especially the Brahminical ones, do.’’2525 Jaina Apostles and monks embraced the medium of stories to preach the eternal values and to drive home philosophy, ethics, righteousness and all that is good and sublime in life. Their sermons and stories inspired people to imbibe the values of non-violence, truth, charity, noble conduct, benevolence and compassion.

In the Sṭhāṇāṅga Sūtta, four types of tales that are to be avioded by the aspirant are mentioned as Strī Kathā, Bhakta Kathā, Deṣa Kathā and Rāja Kathā2626 i.e., an aspirant desirous of perfection should not indulge in gossip and waste his time listening to or telling tales about ladies, food, country and politics, respectively. They poison the flow of noble and sublime thoughts hence one should avoid talking or listening to the four types of evil tales. Further the four types of Kathās are mentioned in the Sṭhāṇāṅga Sūtta which are as follows:

  1. Ākṣhepaṇī. Ākṣhepaṇī type of stories are those which inspire us to acquire knowledge and tread on the path of righteousness.

  2. Vikṣhepaṇī. Vikṣhepaṇī type of stories reveal the right path to be treaded upon and inspires the readers to avoid the path of misdeed, destruction, crime and shame.

  3. Samvedani. These type of stories are full of the element of renunciation and inspires one to realize the transient nature of all material pleasures and establish oneself in the truth.

  4. Nirvedanī Kathā. Nirvedanī stories reveal the karmic conditions and their fruition, and instructs one and all to realize the same and lead a detached life.2727

  5. The above four types of stories are further sub-divided into four types each. The above four classifications are mentioned in the Daṣāvaikālika Niryukti, Mūlārādhana, Sṭhānāṅgavṛtti, Dhavala etc.2828

Ācārya Haribhadra Sūri, in the text of Samarāiccakahā has mentioned and explained four types of kathās namely Artha Kathā, Kāma Kathā, Dharma Kathā and Samkiṛna Kathā.2929

1. ARTHA KATHĀ: Stories relating to material gains, various trades and commerce, means of livelihood, weapons, judiciary matters, agriculture, writing and other skills etc., are elaborated through Artha Kathā.

2. KĀMA KATHĀ: Stories relating to material pleasures and desires are told through Kāma Kathā.

3. DHARMA KATHĀ: Stories of forbearance, simplicity, austerity, self-restraint, practice of five great vows, compassion, destruction of karmas are the contents of Dharma Kathā.

4. SAṀKĪRNA KATHĀ: Saṁkīrṇa kathā is one in which the achievement of righteousness, material gains and sensual pleasures are glorifed to the fullest. Saṁkīrṇa kathā combines the characteristics of the former three types of Kathās.

Siddhaṛṣi mentions the above four types of stories in Upamiti-Bhava-Prapañca-Kathā.3030 Another classification of stories that we come across is as follows:

1. Religious Tales (Dharma Kathā)
2. Didactic Tales (Nīti Kathā)
3. Popular Tales (Loka Kathā)
4. Allegorical Tales (Rūpaka Kathā 31 31)

RELIGIOUS TALES

As stated earlier India is a spiritual land and has been a mother to many religions and philosophies. In his introduction to Bṛhatkathā Koṣa the author states, ““That India is a cradle of religions is not merely a proud or sarcastic platitude, but it is a fact which can be fully attested by a large mass of evidence from literary records.’’ He further remarks, “Apart from its theoretical and mystical elements, religion, so far as it has grown on the Indian soil, has constantly attempted to evolve and propagate certain ethical standards for the good behavior of man as a constituent of the society. Thus religion has also played the role of the norm of good behavior for the guidance of which some objective criteria were necessary. They were put in various forms: they may be the instructions of the Divinity inherited from times immemorial; they may be the sanctions of the old scriptures; and they may be the preachings and examples of the heroes of the past. It is in the last tendency that we can trace the antecedents of the epic poetry, heroic legends and tales in India, which began moderately but assumed massive magnitude as time passed on.’’3232 Hence Indian Narrative Literature is full of religious tales be it the Brahmanic or Śrāmanic traditions.

We come across a question on religious tales in the Uttarādhyayana Sūtra. The disciple asks the Master : Oh Lord! What does one gain by Dharma Kathā? The master replies, ““By dharma kathā one can achieve annihilation of karmas and spread the message of the Jina.’’3333 Thus he can reap auspicious karmic conditioning. Dharma Kathā is one, which illustrates the various situations faced by the mortals in the worldly sojourn and the thought process attached with each conditioning. Dharma Kathā is also defined as one in which righteousness i.e. Dharma is prominent and Dharma is that which elevates and liberates.3434

DIDACTIC TALES

Didactic Tales hold a very important place in Indian Narrative Literature as they are very popular among the masses and appeal to all classes of people. The important characteristics of Didactic Tales according to Samuel Johnson are that the characters are unintelligent and sometimes lifeless elements. Their motive is to educate the readers about the science of ethics. Imaginary elements like birds and beasts are chosen and made to talk and behave like human beings.3535 The Pañchatantra is a classic example of Didactic Tales. The Hitopadeṣa, Aesops Fables, the Jātakās are world famous didactic tales. The Didactic Tales serve the purpose of entertainment and education. The style of narration is simple, attractive and appealing- all interwoven in a didactic tone. These tales caution the masses against the evil elements prevalent in society and inspire them to be righteous.3636

POPULAR TALES

In the Popular Tales the chief characters are not animals and birds but human beings. Guṇādhya’s Bṛhatkathā is the oldest compilation of popular tales which is lost now.3737 The Vetāla Pañcaviṅṣati, written on the lines of Bṛhat Kathā Mañjari and Kathā Saṛit Sāgar is a popular work of Popular Tale. To name a few tales of Jainism are the Ratnachū²a Kathā of Jñānasagar Sūri, Mahipāl charitra of Cāritrasundar, Uttama Cāritra-Kathānaka, Pāpabuddhi- Dharma buddhi kathānaka, (The Story of evil mind and pious mind) Campakaṣreṣṭhi Kathānaka by Jinakīrti, Amba²a Cāritra by Amana Sūri, Bala-Gopāla-Kathānaka by Jinakirti38. Besides these and other popular tales many compilations (Kathā Koṣās) too contain popular tales which continue to entertain and inspire people all over the world.

ALLEGORICAL TALES

Allegorical tales though very few in number when compared to the other three types of tales hold a prominent place in Indian Narrative Literature. Human emotions and feelings are formless and are of abstract nature and hence their perception is beyond the limit of the five senses. But if the same is presented in the form of a simile, analogy or allegory, they prove to be very constructive as they make an acute and a lasting impression on the readers. The more natural and vivid the imagination and the analogy, the more meaningful and fruitful is the impression. Thus allegory plays a very important role in poetics in which nature, human emotions and all abstract elements become lively.39Traces of Allegorical tales can be found in the Upaniṣads, Jātaka tales, Sūtta Nipāta, Śrimad Bhāgvat, Bhāgavat Gītā, Rāmāyana, Mahābhārata and the Bible.

In the Jaina Narrative Literature, traces of allegorical tales are seen in the cannonical and non-canonical works. Winternitz remarks on the Uttarādhyayana Sūtra, ““Several sections are sermons in series of aphorisms, admonitions to the pupils, elaborations on the cares which the monk must endure with patience, on the four most precious things (birth as a human being, instruction in the religion, faith in the religion, strength in self-control), on Karma and sin, on the voluntary death of the sage and the involuntary death of the fool, on true and false ascetics, etc.’’40 Nami Pavajja, the ninth canto of the Uttarādhya-yana Sūtra is a classic example of allegory. Besides many allegorical parables are sacttered on the entire canvas of Jaina Narrative Literature. The Mahu-bindu-Dṛṣtanta of Samarāiccakahā is a good example of allegory.41

““The Upamiti-Bhava-Prapañca-Kathā is the first allegorical work in Indian Literature, remarks H. Jacobi.’’42 The entire text is allegorical and progresses on two parellel lines- one is of material origin and the other is the spiritual significance and the thought process attached with each origin. Siddhaṛṣi, the author of Upamiti-Bhava-Prapañca-Kathā was the first scholar to create an entire tale in an allegorical form in the 10th century.

The Piligrims’ Progress of John Bunyan written in the form of a religious allegory is an allegorical work of the 17th century.Many dramas were written in allegorical style, important ones being Prabodha Candrodaya by Merutuṅgasūri, Moharāj-Parājaya by Yaṣpāla, “Dharma Vijaya’ by Pandit Bhūdeva Śukla, Caitanya Candrodayam by Karṇapur, Jñāna Sūryodaya by Vadi-chandra Sūri etc.43 Astudy of these allegorical works reveals the fact that poets, writers, scholars and philosophers chose the medium of allegory to expound the philosophical values and to educate the masses.

A retrospective of the allegorical works in Indian Narrative Literature especially Sanskrit Narrative Literature and Jaina Narrative Literature discloses the fact that Upamiti-Bhava-Prapañca-Kathā is the first narrative tale written on such a vast canvas exhibiting all human emotions, weaknesses and achievements. This is a brief introduction of story literature and in the next chapter we shall study about the life of the author of Upamiti-Bhava-Prapañca-Kathā.

| Contents |

  1. Dr. Jagdishchandra Jain in Prakrit Narrative Literature. []
  2. The Ocean of Stories, Introduction. []
  3. Maria Leach in Standard Dictionary of Folklore Mythology or Legends. []
  4. Introduction of Upamiti-Bhava-Prapañca-Kathā []
  5. Maurice Winternitz in History of Indian Literature, Vol. II. Page 5 []
  6. Introduction to Bṛhatkathā Koṣa. []
  7. Ibid. []
  8. History of Indian Literature, Vol. II, Page 117 []
  9. Franke R. Otto. Ibid. []
  10. Maurice Winternitz in History of Indian Literature, Vol II. []
  11. Ibid, Page 119 []
  12. Ibid, Page 118 []
  13. Ibid, Page 409 []
  14. Ibid, Page 501 []
  15. Ibid, A Source Book in Jaina Philosophy by Devendra Muni Śhastri and Dhamma Kahānuogo by Muni Kanhaiyālalji Kamal. []
  16. Maurice Winternitz in History of Indian Literature, Vol II, Page 425 []
  17. Ibid, Page 429 []
  18. Ibid, Page 448 []
  19. Introduction to Bṛhatkathā Koṣa. []
  20. Maurice Winternitz in History of Indian Literature, Vol II, Page 455 []
  21. Dhammakahānuogo, complied by Muni Kanhaiyālalji Kamal. []
  22. Introduction to Bṛhatkathā Koṣa. []
  23. Maurice Winternitz in History of Indian Literature, Vol II, Page 456 []
  24. Introduction to Bṛhatkathā Koṣa []
  25. Maurice Winternitz in History of Indian Literature, Vol II, Page 524 []
  26. Sṭhāṇāṅga Sūtta 4/2/241. []
  27. Sṭhāṇāṅga Sūtta 4/2/246. []
  28. Dhammakahānuogo, by Muni Kanhaiyālalji Kamal. []
  29. Haribhadra Sūri in Samarāiccakahā. []
  30. Upamiti-Bhava-Prapañca-Kathā, Chapter I Piṭhabandha. []
  31. Introduction of Upamiti-Bhava-Prapañca-Kathā, by Devendra Muni Shastri. []
  32. Introduction to Bṛhatkathā Koṣa. []
  33. Uttarādhyayana Sūtra. []
  34. Dhammakahānuogo, by Muni Kanhaiyālalji Kamal. []
  35. Samuel Johnson. []
  36. Introduction of Upamiti-Bhava-Prapañca-Kathā, by Devendra Muni Shastri. []
  37. Ibid. []
  38. Ibid. []
  39. Ibid. []
  40. Maurice Winternitz in History of Indian Literature, Vol II, Page 448 []
  41. Introduction of Upamiti-Bhava-Prapañca-Kathā, by Devendra Muni Shastri. []
  42. Ibid. []
  43. Ibid. []